• Manipur

    1. Overview.. 1
    2. Human rights violations by the security forces. 3
    a. Violations of the right to life. 3
    b. Enforced disappearances. 5
    c. Arbitrary arrest, illegal detention and torture. 5
    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs. 6
    a. Violations of the right to life. 6
    b. Torture. 7
    c. Kidnappings. 8
    4. Violence against women. 8
    a. By the security forces. 8
    b. By the armed opposition groups. 9
    5. Violations of the prisoners' rights. 9
    6. Repression on the freedom of the press. 10
    7. Status of the IDPs. 10
    8. Judiciary and administration of justice. 11
    9. Status of Manipur State Human Rights Commission. 12
    10. Misuse of the national security laws. 12

    1. Overview

    Manipur witnessed serious human rights violations during 2006. The spate of bandhs and blockades continued, as did the cycle of violence. Although in April 2006, Union Minister of State for Defence, MM Pallam Raju stated that the army had been maintaining a “zero tolerance policy” on human rights violations in Manipur[1], the armed forces carried out arbitrary arrest, torture and extrajudicial killings with impunity under the garb of fighting “insurgency”. On 2 December 2006, Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh announced from the Kangla Fort that the Central government was considering amendments to the Armed Forces Special Powers Act to make it “humane”.[2] However, the Central Government failed to implement the recommendations of the Committee to Review the Armed Forces Special Powers Act of 1958 under the chairmanship of Justice Jeevan Reddy which recommended for repeal of the AFSPA, among others, in its final report submitted in June 2005.

    The armed opposition groups (AOGs) were also responsible for gross violations of international humanitarian laws, including killing, kidnapping, torture and extortion. On 14 November 2006, banned AOG, People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) attacked the residence of Chief Minister Okram Ibobi Singh with bombs to protest the alleged corruption and violation of human rights in the State.[3]

    According to the Ministry of Home Affairs a total of 311 persons including 96 civilians, 28 security forces and 187 alleged cadres of AOGs were killed in 2006 against killing of 410 persons including 158 civilians, 50 security forces and 202 alleged cadres of AOGs in 2005.[4]

    Many Naga civil society organisations in the four hill districts of Ukhrul, Senapati, Tamenglong and Chandel intensified their campaign for Naga integration by discarding textbooks prescribed by Manipur Board of Secondary Education. After burning hundreds of Manipuri textbooks in the four Naga-dominated hill districts, the All Naga Students Association of Manipur introduced textbooks prescribed by the Nagaland Board of School Education in schools.[5]

    Landmines planted by the AOGs killed more than 20 civilians during 2004-2006.[6] On 1 December 2006, a 16-year-old girl identified as Nengneikim was killed after stepping on a landmine planted near her village of Aibol Jamkhomang under Chakpikarong subdivision in Chandel district.[7]

    On 18 September 2006, Chief Minister Okram Ibobi Singh stated before the State Assembly that 377 cadres belonging to 18 AOGs had surrendered to the police since 1990. Of these, 173 cadres were provided jobs under the surrender and rehabilitation scheme while 56 others were given financial help for self-employment.[8]

    According to the annual report of the State police department, a total of 2,911 cases under the Indian Penal Code were registered in Manipur during 2005 showing an increase of 380 from 2004. Of the total crime registered, 256 were related to murder, 251 attempt to murder and 295 were assault, 70 cases of kidnapping of women and 25 cases of rape.[9]

    The security forces and the AOGs were responsible for violence against women including killing, sexual abuses and torture. On 16 January 2006, alleged cadres of United National Liberation Front allegedly gang raped 21 minor Hmar tribal girls, aged between 13 and 17 years, at Lungthulien village in Tipaimukh division of Churachandpur district.[10]

    The human rights defenders were also targeted. On 23 August 2006, Yengkokpam Langamba Meitei alias Thabi, the Publicity Secretary of the Threatened Indigenous People's Society (TIPS) was arrested from his house at Top Awang Leikai in Imphal East district by a joint team of Assam Rifles and State Police led by Jhalajit Singh, the Sub-Divisional Police Officer of Imphal West. An arrest memo was issued under Section 41 of the Criminal Procedure Code. On 24 August 2006, TIPS Secretary General Leitangthem Umakanta Meitei was arrested from his house at Porompat Thawanthaba Leikai in Imphal East district without any arrest memo by a police team also led by Jhalajit Singh. But the arrest warrant subsequently produced by the police stated that he was detained at 9.30 am.[11] 

    Both Yengkokpam Langamba Meitei and Leitangthem Umakanta Meitei were booked under sections 38 and 39 of the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967, relating to the charges of being members of  the banned AOG, Kanglei Yawol Kana Lup (KYKL) and providing support to it. 

    The Judicial Magistrate granted bail to Leitangthem Umakanta Meitei and Yengkokpam Langamba Meitei on 20 August 2006 and 1 September 2006 respectively as the police failed to provide sufficient evidence against them. But both of them refused to take bail until all the cases framed against them were declared as false. Both the activists were tortured in custody.[12] On 4 October 2006, both of them were released and all charges against them were dropped.[13]

    2. Human rights violations by the security forces

    a. Violations of the right to life

    Both the State police and the Central security forces were responsible for violations of the right to life.

    Asian Centre for Human Rights documented many cases of killing of civilians by the security forces during socalled anti-insurgency operations. The victims included Longjam Jeet alias Jitendra alias Jolly, son of L Ibosana of Kakwa Pheijaleitong, who was allegedly killed in the custody of the State Police Commandos after being arrested from Khuya-thong Pukhri Achouba on 8 January 2006;[14] Jangkhotinmang Hao-kip who was allegedly killed by 24 Assam Rifles personnel after arrest at Chavangphai in Moreh on 11 January 2006;[15] Laitanthem Boy Singh, son of Babu Singh of Kongpal Kshetri Leikai, who was killed by a Police Commandos at Thambal Sabal Leikai under Porompat police station on 30 January 2006;[16] Md Abdul Hakim of Lilong Leihoukhong who was shot dead by Police Commando after he failed to heed orders to stop for checking at Paona Bazar in Imphal on 25 February 2006;[17] Heman Naocha who was killed by personnel of 6th Assam Rifles stationed at Gothol after being picked up from Saiton Leitanpokpi in Bishenpur district on the night of 3 April 2006;[18] Samuel, son of Zamkhokai of Pangzawl and Nangthian Muang, son of Thaangzasuan of New Lamka who were allegedly killed by the Border Security Force personnel during live firing exercise at the Subsidiary Training Centre at Gangpimual on 15 April 2006;[19] SN Premson, son of SN Bouthal of Laingangching Lamkang village, who was killed in an alleged encounter at Laingangching under Waikhong police station in Chandel district on 26 July 2006;[20] Thwangkhanlian Ngaihte who was killed when personnel of the Rajputana Rifles allegedly fired at the church during an encounter with AOGs at Vengnuom village in Churachandpur district on 20 August 2006;[21] Langjam Surjit Singh of Samurou Makha Leikai under Wangoi police station of Imphal West district who was shot dead by the 22nd Maratha Light Infantry in an alleged encounter at Meijrao village on 1 September 2006;[22] Yumnam Rojen Singh, head teacher of Ethai Warukok village who was killed by personnel of 7th Assam Rifles at Wangoo of Bishnupur district on 4 October 2006;[23] Pukhrampham Suranjoy, an Life Insurance Corporation agent, who was allegedly shot dead by personnel of Assam Rifles after being picked up near his home at Laipham Khunou in Imphal East district on the night of  27 October 2006;[24] and Ningthoujam Khaiba alias Binoy, an alleged cadre of the Peoples Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak, who was shot dead by police near Sajiwa jail in Imphal East district while he was on his way home after serving a year in prison on 13 November 2006.[25]

    Women and children were victimized during army operations. On 11 March 2006, a young woman identified as Moikham was allegedly killed by the security forces during an alleged encounter with cadres of AOGs at Khoibu Khunou in Chandel district.[26] On 22 July 2006, a nine-year-old boy Haobijam Surjakanta was killed in a crossfire between the AOGs and the security forces at Wangjing area in Thoubal district.[27] On 4 December 2006, Neolun, wife of Hoikhosong Haokip of Sipijang village was killed after being hit by a bullet when two Police Commandos allegedly fired towards her during an encounter with AOGs at Songlun village of Senapati district.[28]

    In June 2006, the Imphal Bench of the Guwahati High Court ordered a judicial enquiry in the killing of one Kh Tejkumar in suspicious circumstances after he was picked up by personnel of 19th Assam Rifles without arrest memo on 9 March 2004.[29]

    There were allegations of ‘fake surrender'. On 25 April 2006, five petitions were filed before the Imphal Bench of Guwahati High Court by the parents of five youth who were allegedly lured into pretending to be members of AOGs and enacting a “surrender drama” in front of mediapersons by the Assam Rifles (AR) on 13 March 2006 with promise of recruitment into the AR. On 13 March 2006, nine persons had surrendered their arms and ammunition to General Officer Commanding  3rd Corps, Lt Gen Z U Shah at a “surrender ceremony” in the presence of the media.[30]

    b. Enforced disappearances

    There were also reports of disappearances in Manipur. On 19 January 2006, four persons including Haobam Nabakumar of Sawombung Thongkhong, a contractor of the Manipur Police Housing Corporation, two sub-contractors of the Northern Agency identified as Takhelmayum Jiban-kumar and Takhel-lambam Naoba and another man identified as Oinam Sanayaima, who had gone to Dimapur to lift rice and sugar from the Food Corporation of India godown, reportedly disappeared after being picked up by suspected security personnel from Chu Mukedima.[31]

    On 15 May 2006, Khwairakpam Biren alias Deven of Sekmai Makha Leikai reportedly disappeared after he left home to get some official work done at Imphal.[32]

    c. Arbitrary arrest, illegal detention and torture

    Arbitrary arrest, detention, torture and other abuses in the garb of fighting insurgency were regular across Manipur.

    On 4 January 2006, Sorokhaibam Basanta was allegedly arrested from his home at Charangpat by personnel of 34th Assam Rifles and taken to their camp blindfolded where he was beaten up with iron rods and given electric shock at his back, buttock and private parts for half an hour during interrogation. He was released the next afternoon.[33]

    On 19 February 2006, three youths identified as Tomba, Shanti and Sunil were reportedly arrested by a joint team of Police Commandos and Assam Rifles personnel from Kakching Khunou under Kakching police station in Thoubal district without arrest memo on the suspicion of being related with the activities of banned Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup.[34]

    On the night of 23 June 2006, Konthoujam Joysingh was allegedly picked by personnel of the 19th Assam Rifles from his residence at Itham village under Lamlai police station in Imphal East district under false charges of being a member of an AOG. Earlier, on 7 June 2006, Konsam Lokhon was picked up from his residence at Itham village by Assam Rifles personnel on similar charges. He was allegedly tortured in custody.[35]

    In October 2006, Laishram Sanahal of Loitang Leikinthabi was picked up by personnel of 4th Assam Rifles under false charges of being a cadre of People's Liberation Army. He was allegedly tortured by various methods including through insertion of chilli powder into the anus.[36]

    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs

    a. Violations of the right to life

    The armed opposition groups (AOGs) were responsible for gross violations of international humanitarian laws including violation of the right to life, sexual abuse, torture, hostage taking and forced eviction of civilians.

    Some of the cases of killing of civilians documented by Asian Centre for Human Rights during the year included M Indrasen Singh, BJP worker and president of Indo-Myanmar Friendship Tourist Centre, who was shot dead by the AOGs at Yairipok in Thoubal district on 2 January 2006 for allegedly refusing to pay extortion money;[37] Oinam Pahari who was killed allegedly by proscribed Peoples Revolutionary Party (Prepak) cadres at Kumbi in Bishenpur district on 14 January 2006;[38] Irom Ingotomba of Pungdongbam Makha Leikai under Lamlai police station who was killed by unidentified gunmen after being abducted from Sawombung Kabui Khunjao on the late night of 10 April 2006;[39] Kabenbou, son of late Winibou of Tamei, who was allegedly killed by NSCN (K) cadres during an operation against the rival faction in Tamenglong district on the night of 5 July 2006;[40] All Manipur Students' Union leader Sunil Agarwal who was killed by suspected Kuki armed cadres after being kidnapped from Moreh town in August 2006;[41] and Khwairakpam Pradip, son of Commissioner of Minor Irrigation Kh Dinamani, who was killed by unidentified gunmen on 23 August 2006 after being kidnapped from Natum Ching in Imphal East district.[42]

    The armed opposition groups also targeted civilians through explosive devices.

    On 16 August 2006, at least five persons including a ten-year-old-boy and a 70-year-old woman were killed and 50 others including foreign nationals were injured in a grenade explosion in the complex of International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) temple in Imphal.[43] Earlier on 5 January 2006, one Sokhotinthang Guite was killed by suspected cadres of AOGs who allegedly fitted a  bomb in his stomach while returning after attending his relative in a medical centre in Chandel district.[44]

    Civilians were also targeted on the charges of being socalled “police informers”. On 28 January 2006, Salam Angouba alias Amirta, son of Samungou of Keibul Lamjao, was allegedly killed by the KYKL cadres on the suspicion of being an informer of the police.[45]

    b. Torture

    AOGs were responsible for widespread torture of the Hmar tribal villagers in Manipur.

    In January 2006, there were reports of torture, beating and rape of villagers of several indigenous Hmar villages in Tipaimukh Sub-Division of Churachandpur district by alleged cadres of the United National Liberation Front (UNLF), an armed opposition group. The UNLF accused the Hmar villagers of sheltering the members of the Hmar Peoples Convention (Democratic), an armed opposition group.[46] Lalrosiem, President of the HPC(D) alleged that hundreds of Hmar villagers were detained by the UNLF in their villages. He further alleged that the UNLF was using the Hmar villagers as hostages and as human shield against attacks from the HPC-D cadres and had been torturing the innocent villagers. According to Lalrosiem, UNLF cadres severely beat up Rev. Lalthawmlien, the District Superintendent of the Evangelical Free Church of India, at Lungthulien village making him disable.[47]

    On 25 April 2006, UNLF cadres allegedly beat up a Hmar youth identified as Lalsiamrema of Damdiai village in Churachandpur district for violating their diktat of not to venture into the nearby jungles of Vanchhawng.[48]

    In October 2006, alleged cadres of Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL) threatened a senior Manipur school education department official, S Gita Devi with “capital punishment” unless she took voluntary retirement from service within 10 days. The KYKL accused her of misusing funds meant for the mid-day meal scheme in schools.[49]

    c. Kidnappings

    The AOGs were also responsible for kidnapping. On 6 June 2006, Nidhu Bhushan Das, a primary school headmaster at Rangkhalbasti village, was reportedly kidnapped by  cadres of suspected Barak Valley Youth Liberation Front from his school. He was released on 15 June 2006.[50]

    4. Violence against women

    Both the security forces and the AOGs committed violence against women including killing, sexual abuses and torture. In February 2006, the Manipur Legislative Assembly unanimously passed the Manipur State Commission for Women Bill 2006.[51]

    a. By the security forces

    On 21 February 2006, Maibam Naobi Chanu, alleged girlfriend of a slain People's Liberation Army (PLA) cadre Kh Bikash, was reportedly picked up by Police Commandos in Thoubal district. She was however released unconditionally by the Chief Judicial Magistrate of Thoubal district on 2 March 2006. The victim alleged that the police pushed an unidentified object inside her private parts inside the vehicle at the time of arrest. In the custody, she was subjected to torture and humiliation including beating, stripping and molestation at the hands of the police.[52] On 4 March 2006, five Police Commandos identified as Assistant Sub-Inspector, L Chaoba, constables Md Nazir (C/No. 988009), Kh Joshep (C/No. 9801034), Y Punshi Singh (C/No. 9801151) and A Noren Singh (C/No. 9801074) were suspended and a magisterial inquiry was ordered into the incident.[53] On 9 November 2006, the Division Bench of Guwahati High Court ordered a fresh enquiry into the case of Maibam Naobi Chanu.[54]

    On 10 April 2006, six women were seriously injured when Assam Rifles personnel resorted to firing at women protesting against the State Government's decision to hand over the Waithou hillock in Thoubal district to the Assam Rifles for setting up a battalion headquarters.[55]

    b. By the armed opposition groups

    The armed opposition groups perpetrated serious abuses against women.

    In January 2006, it was alleged that armed cadres belonging to United National Liberation Front (UNLF) raped 21 minor Hmar tribal girls, aged between 13 and 17 years, at Lungthulien village in the Tipaimukh division of Churachandpur district.[56] On 17 March 2006, the Manipur State Government issued notification constituting a Commission of Inquiry to probe the gang rape of the Hmar girls[57] and appointed retired Justice SP Rajkhowa, a former Judge of West Bengal High Court as head of the inquiry commission.[58] On 3 June 2006, a lone-member fact-finding panel from the National Commission for Women stated that the 21 Hmar girls had been raped. Mrs Bhattacharya said that though there was no direct medical evidence of rape, secondary evidence in the form of trauma, depression, psychological disorder and various other signs associated with rape and molestation, had been enough for her to come to the conclusion that the girls had been raped. In her report submitted to the Governor, the Chief Minister and the Chief Secretary of Manipur, Mrs Bhattacharya recommended immediate opening of the Parbung Primary Health Centre and posting doctors on an “emergency basis for the medical treatment of the tortured rape victms”[59] and to provide a rehabilitation package for the rape victims.[60]

    On 19 November 2006, two women were allegedly gang raped at gun-point by alleged cadres of PREPAK at Sekmaijin in Imphal West district.[61]

    5. Violations of the prisoners' rights

    There were three prisons in Manipur, including two Central jail and one district jail. However, the district jails which had a capacity for 50 prisoners was non-functional. The jails were flooded with under-trials. There were 529 prisoners lodged in the two Central jails against the sanctioned capacity for 1,090 prisoners. Out of these 529 prisoners, only 31 were convicted prisoners, 395 were under-trial prisoners and 103 were detained under the National Security Act in 2006, according to the State jail department.[62]

    There was no separate jail exclusively for women prisoners. There was a capacity of 110 female prisoners in the two Central jails, 20 in Imphal jail and 90 in Sajiwa Central jail. There were only 26 female prisoners at the beginning of 2006. They were being kept in a separate block at Central jail at Sajiwa.[63]

    There was report of death of at least one prisoner. On 21 January 2006, Kshetrimayum Meghamani Singh of Pallel Mayai Leikai died at Sajiwa Central jail under mysterious circumstances.[64]

    6. Repression on the freedom of the press

    Journalists working in Manipur came under severe attacks from both the State and non-state actors. On 9 February 2006, unidentified gunmen shot at and critically injured Ratan Luwangcha, Bureau Chief of Poknapham, a Manipuri vernacular daily, near his residence at Uripok in Imphal town.[65] On 12 February 2006, Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) claimed  responsibility for the attack. The KCP accused him of collecting money from traders in its name.[66]

    On the night of 16 April 2006, six senior journalists including the news editor of ISTV were arbitrarily detained by the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) for allegedly misquoting a statement of the AOG.[67] All the six journalists were released after publication of a full statement by KCP in the editorials on 17 April 2006. The KCP also reportedly banned Imphal Free Press for three months.[68]

    On the night of 20 December 2006, Paonam Labango Mangang, 47, publisher and editor of Kangla Pao, was shot at by unidentified men at Keisampat in Imphal town.[69]

    7. Status of the IDPs

    In early 2006, hundreds of tribals were displaced in Churachandpur district following clashes between a Hmar armed opposition group, Hmar Peoples Convention (Democratic) and the United National Liberation Front of Manipur.[70] About 1,000 Hmar villagers of Lunghtulien, Parbung, Tulbung and Mawlia areas of Churachandpur district fled to Mizoram. While many took shelter with relatives or stayed at rented accommodation in Aizawl,[71] a total of 122 Hmar families, comprising 669 persons were housed at Sakawrdai relief camps, according to official records of the Government of Manipur. On the other hand, the IDPs claimed that their populations were 127 families comprising  710 persons.[72]

    On 24 February 2006, a high level team of Manipur Government comprising Members of State Legislative Assembly, Mr K Ranjit, Dr Chaltonlien Amo and Mr Vivek Raj Wangkhem and Commissioner of Relief met Mizoram Chief Minister Zoram Thanga, Mizoram Chief Secretary and Deputy Commissioner of Aizawl, Mizoram. The Mizoram Government had reportedly spent a sum of Rs. 8,00,000/- on the upkeep of the IDPs from Churachandpur in Manipur and the high level team assured reimbursement of the said amount.[73]

    On 18 June 2006, the Manipur Government reportedly announced a package to the Mizoram Government for repatriation of the Hmar families. As per the package, each displaced family who return to Manipur till 30 June 2006 were offered Rs 5,000 and free ration for a resettlement period of four months.[74] On 6 July 2006, L. Thuamluaia, Chairman of the Manipur Hmar Refugees Advisory Board alleged that the Manipur Governement was threatening the refugees to return to Manipur and that such threats  forced the first batch of 42 Hmar families to go back to their home in Manipur. He claimed that the atmosphere in Manipur was not conducive to return home.[75] On 29 July 2006, another 560 IDPs sheltered at Sakawrdai camps returned to their ancestral homes in Manipur while about 300 Hmar villagers were putting up either at their relatives' houses or in rented rooms, mostly at Aizawl.[76]

    8. Judiciary and administration of justice

    Judicial delay plagued the justice system in Manipur. There were 6 vacancies out of the sanctioned strength of 34 and a total of 9,254 cases were pending with the District and Subordinate Courts as on 30 June 2006.[77]

    However, despite delays, the Imphal Bench of Gauhati High Court ordered inquiry and payment of compensation in some cases of human rights violations by the security forces.

    On 23 January 2006, the Imphal Bench of Gauhati High Court directed the District and Sessions Judge, Manipur East to make an inquiry into the case of indiscriminate firing by Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) at Tera Bazar on 25 August 1993 in which one Manimohon sustained bullet injuries and to submit the inquiry report within four months. The victim was shot at by the personnel without warning that left him disabled for life.[78]

    On 11 September 2006, the Imphal Bench of Gauhati High Court ordered payment of Rs 3 lakh as compensation to each of the next of kin of six civilians who were shot dead in cold blood by CRPF jawans on 3 October 1999.[79]

    9. Status of Manipur State Human Rights Commission

    The Manipur State Human Rights Commission (MHRC) registered more than 120 human rights violations cases by the end of 2005. These included seven cases of illegal detention and killing by the Central security forces, 27 cases of negligence or excess on the part of the state police and 15 cases of rape including of minor girls.[80]

    However, the MHRC could not function effectively due to State Government's apathy. The State Government failed to provide adequate funds and infrastructure required for smooth functioning of the Commission. There was shortage of staff members. Members of the Commission alleged that the government “ill-treated, neglected and abandoned” the commission. In June 2006, RS Rajendro, a member of MHRC, threatened to resign if the government's indifference towards the MHRC continued.[81]

    10. Misuse of the national security laws

    On 12 May 2006, the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Tribunal comprising Delhi High Court Judge Justice J P Singh upheld the notification of the Central Government of November 2005 declaring seven AOGs ooprating in Manipur as unlawful. These banned AOGs were People's Liberation Army, Revolutionary People's Front, United National Liberation Front, People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (including its armed wing, the Red Army), Kangleipak Communist Party (including its armed wing also called Red Army), Kanglei Yawol Kanba Lup and Manipur People's Liberation Front.[82]

    According to the State Police, six cases were registered under the Arms Act, 65 cases under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 11 cases under the Explosive Substances Act, one case under the Payment of Gratuity Act, 9 cases under the Foreigners Act, 14 cases under the Essential Commodities Act and 417 cases were registered under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act in 2005.[83]

    At the beginning of 2006, there were 103 prisoners detained in the two central Jails of the State under the National Security Act, according to the State jail department.[84]                                               

    [1]. Defence Minister bares heart on rights abuse, The Sangai Express, 8 April 2006, also available at http://www.e-pao.net/epArcDisplay.asp?src=080407 

    [2]. http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/dec/02pm.htm

    [3]. Militants attack Manipur CM's residence, Rediff News, 15 November 2006, http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/nov/15manipur.htm

    [4]. Annual Report 2006-2007, Ministry of Home Affairs

    [5]. 2006 AT A GLANCE, The Telegraph, 30 December 2006 

    [6]. Landmines threat lurks in Manipur villages, The Shillong Times, 13 December 2006 

    [7]. Girl dies in landmine blast, The Kanglaonline, 7 December 2006

    [8]. 173 ex-rebels given jobs, 29 cases bogus - Ibobi lists 377 surrenders, The Telegraph, 19 September 2006

    [9]. Crimes on upward spiral in state, says police report, The Kanglaonline, 21 March 2006

    [10]. In Manipur, tribal groups call for probe into rape by militants, The Indian Express, 7 March 2006

    [11]. UA-278-2006: INDIA: Two human rights activists illegally arrested and tortured in Manipur, Asian Human Rights Commission, 25 August 2006, http://www.ahrchk.net/ua/mainfile.php/2006/1928/ 

    [12]. Amnesty International India: Further information on Fear for safety/ torture, 4 September 2006 

    [13]. Amnesty International, AI Index: ASA 20/028/2006, 11 October 2006 

    [14]. Custodial killing slur on commandos, The Sangaiexpress, 10 January 2006

    [15]. Another killing rocks Moreh, The Sangaiexpress, 13 January 2006 

    [16]. Locals protest killing of youth by the police, The Kanglaonline, 1 February 2006 

    [17]. Indefinite strike called from today over killing by commandos at Paona bazaar, The Kanglaonline, 27 February 2006

    [18]. Civilian`s arrest provokes further public ire, Tiddim Rd blockaded, The Kanglaonline, 7 April 2006

    [19]. Two killed, another hurt in BSF mortar explosion in CCpur, The Kanglaonline, 17 April 2006

    [20]. Student killed, soldier hurt as Assam Rifles clash with suspected NSCN (IM) fighters, The Kanglaonline, 27 July 2006

    [21]. Probe into Manipur firing - Ibobi announces ex gratia, army denies charge, The Telegraph, 23 August 2006

    [22]. One shot amidst contesting claims, The Kanglaonline, 2 September 2006

    [23]. Headmaster killed in AR action, The Sentinel, 6 October 2006 

    [24]. Laipham Khunou furious at AR for killing local youth, The Kanglaonline, 30 October 2006 

    [25]. Probe into militant killing, The Telegraph, 22 November 2006 

    [26]. Security forces accused of killing hapless woman, The Shillong Times, 13 March 2006 

    [27]. Manipur hit by stir over boy's death, The Assam Tribune, 24 July 2006 

    [28]. Old woman dies in police firing, many villagers beaten up at Sapermeina, The Kanglaonline, 5 December 2006

    [29]. HC orders probe in Tejkumar killing, The Kanglaonline, 9 June 2006 

    [30]. Militants' 'surrender': Identity crisis in court, The Indian Express, 29 April 2006 

    [31]. Four picked up by SF still untraced, The Sangaiexpress, 24 January 2006 

    [32]. Disappearance case surfaces after 17 days, The Kanglaonline, 2 June 2006 

    [33]. AR torture youth with electric shocks? The Sentinel, 9 January 2006 

    [34]. Kakching resident storm police station after rumor of youth's death, The Kanglaonline, 20 February

    [35]. High handedness of security personnel alleged, The Sentinel, 28 June 2006 

    [36]. Torture charges against 4 AR, The Sangaiexpress, 30 October 2006 

    [37]. BJP worker shot dead in Manipur, The Times of India, 3 January 2006

    [38]. Ithai seethes over killing - Public outcry grows against another militant execution, The Telegraph, 19 January 2006 

    [39]. Khurai killing provokes public ire, road blockaded, The Kanglaonoine, 12 April 2006 

    [40]. Civilian killed as NSCN(K) begin Tml `counter-ops`, The Kanglaonoine, 7 July 2006 

    [41]. Moreh remains tense as protests over killing continue, The Kanglaonline, 14 August 2006 

    [42]. Manipur official's son shot dead, The Indian Express, 25 August 2006 

    [43]. Grenade attack on ISKCON temple complex, The Hindu, 17 August 2006 

    [44]. Hill bodies decry dastardly killing, The Sangaiexpress, 18 January 2006

    [45]. KYKL claims informers killing, The Kanglaonline, 1 February 2006 

    [46]. Hounded villagers flee to Mizoram, The Telegraph, 20 January 2006 

    [47]. Frightened Hmars send letters to UPA chairman, PM, The Newslink, 21 January 2006 

    [48]. Manipur Hmars flee militant atrocities, The Telegraph, 28 April 2006 

    [49]. Step down or die, KYKL tells official, The Telegraph, 14 October 2006 

    [50]. Rebels free kidnapped headmaster, The Telegraph, 17 June 2006

    [51]. State women`s commission bill gets president`s assent, The Kanglaonline, 14 July 2006

    [52]. Released Naobi narrates her nightmare in police custody, The Kanglaonline, 3 March 2006

    [53]. Five commandos suspended over Naobi`s allegations, The Kanglaonline, 6 March 2006 

    [54]. HC orders fresh enquiry in Naobi Chanu case, The Kanglaonline, 10 November 2006 

    [55]. Women's army takes on cops - Broom-wielding villagers stall hill handover to forces, The Telegraph, 11 April 2006

    [56]. In Manipur, tribal groups call for probe into rape by militants, The Indian Express, 7 March 2006

    [57]. Govt constitutes twin inquiry panels, The Kanglaonline, 20 March 2006

    [58]. Rajkhowa to head probe panel, The Sangaiexpress, 20 March 2006

    [59]. Women were raped in Parbung: NWC, The Statesman, 4 June 2006

    [60]. NCW for rehab package for rape victims, The Assam Tribune, 5 June 2006

    [61]. 2 women gang-raped by Manipur rebels, The Assam Tribune, 23 November 2006 

    [62]. Only 31 convicts among 529 prisoner lodged in state jails, The Impahl Press, 12 March 2006

    [63]. Only 31 convicts among 529 prisoner lodged in state jails, The Impahl Press, 12 March 2006

    [64]. Man arrested for killing wife dies mysteriously in jail, The Kanglaonline, 23 January 2006 

    [65]. North-East, scribes face wrath of Govt, rebels, The Pioneer, 11 February 2006

    [66]. Extortion charge on scribe, The Telegraph, 14 February 2006 

    [67]. Scribes protest detention of six editors by UGs, The Kanglaonline, 18 April 2006 

    [68]. http://www.hindu.com/2006/04/20/stories/2006042006471000.htm

    [69]. Editor escapes bid on life - Scribes stage sit-in protest in Imphal against attack, The Telegraph, 22 December 2006 

    [70]. Hundreds flee after clash in Manipur, The Pioneer, 21 January 2006

    [71]. Displaced Hmar people return home, The E-pao.net, 2 August 2006, available at: http://www.e-pao.net/GP.asp?src=5..030806.aug06

    [72]. Manipur plans to repatriate Hmar refugees, The Sentinel, 19 June 2006

    [73]. State team in Aizawl promises refund of expenses incurred on refugees, The Kanglaonline, 25 February 2006

    [74]. Manipur plans to repatriate Hmar refugees, The Sentinel, 19 June 2006

    [75]. Home-return dilemma for Hmar refugees, The Telegraph, 7 July 2006

    [76]. Displaced Hmar people return home, The E-pao.net, 2 August 2006, available at: http://www.e-pao.net/GP.asp?src=5..030806.aug06

    [77]. Court News, July-September 2006, Supreme Court of India

    [78]. Inquiry ordered into Tera firing of 1993, The Sangaiexpress, 24 January 2006 

    [79]. Rs 3 lakh for '99 firing victims, The Telegraph, 13 September 2006 

    [80]. 120 cases registered with MHRC, The Kanglaonline, 3 January 2006 

    [81]. Rights panel hits out at Ibobi govt, The Telegraph, 28 June 2006 

    [82]. Tribunal upholds Govt decision to declare 7 Manipur groups unlawful, The Indian Express, 3 June 2006 

    [83]. Crimes on upward spiral in state, says police report, The Kanglaonline, 21 March 2006 

    [84]. Only 31 convicts among 529 prisoner lodged in state jails, The Impahl Press, 12 March 2006 

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