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  • Maharashtra

    1. Overview.. 1
    2. Human rights violations by the security forces. 3
    a. Custodial deaths. 3
    b. Extra-judicial killings. 4
    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs. 4
    4. Violations of the rights of the Dalits. 5
    5. Repression on the freedom of the press. 7
    6. Status of the IDPs. 8
    7. Violations of the prisoners' rights. 8
    8. Special Focus I: Starvation deaths. 9
    9. Special Focus II: Farmers' suicides. 9


    1. Overview

    Ruled by the coalition of the Indian National Congress and the Nationalist Congress Party, Maharashtra continued to witness gross human rights violations. The year 2006 also witnessed rise in Naxalism in the State. According to the estimate of Asian Centre for Human Rights, a total of 60 persons, including 20 civilians, 4 security personnel and 36 alleged Naxalites, also known as Maoists, were killed in the State during 2006. The State Government reportedly raised a Special Action Group (SAG) consisting of 300 specially trained armed police personnel to fight the Naxalites. About 80% of SAG personnel were drawn from two Naxalite affected districts of Gadchiroli and Gondia.[1] The State Government also encouraged vigilante violence by encouraging the villagers to hunt down Maoists or Maoist sympathizers. In November 2006, the State Government decided to increase the amount of reward from Rs 2 lakh to Rs 3 lakh for any Naxal-affected village in the State under the Gaonbandi (no-entry to the village) scheme. The scheme required the villagers of a particular village to pass a resolution in writing declaring Gaonbandi to Naxalites to be eligible for the reward.[2]

    Deaths of children due to malnutrition and suicide of farmers due to crop failures and high indebtedness continued unabated, even as the Central Government and the State Government announced various schemes for their welfare. On 3 March 2006, Minister of State for Agriculture, Food & Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs & Public Distribution, Dr. Akhilesh Prasad Singh in a written reply stated in Rajya Sabha that as many as 2,994 children in the age group of 0-6 years died due to various reasons including malnutrition up to July 2005 in Vidarbha alone.[3] Over 1,700 children reportedly died of malnutrition in Thane district in the last one year as of 7 April 2006.[4]

    The Vidarbha region also virtually turned into a killing field for farmers. On 29 December 2006, Vidarbha Jan Andolan Samiti (VJAS) stated that a total of 1,060 farmers committed suicide in Vidarbha region in 2006. This included 105 deaths in December 2006, 107 in November 2006, 112 in October 2006, 124 in September 2006, 111 in August 2006 and 90 in July 2006. In Yavatmal district, more than 344 cotton farmers committed suicides in 2006 of which 70% were tribals, Dalits and Banjaras. According to VJAS, 412 farmers had committed suicide in 2005, 324 in 2004, 156 in 2003, 102 in 2002, 54 in 2001, 46 in 2000, and 36 in 1999. The cotton farmers of West Vidarbha were worst affected. Out of 3 million farmers in West Vidarbha, more than 75% lived under extreme distress.[5] The Central Government and the State Government announced various relief packages for the farmers. But none of the programme or scheme was properly implemented. On 1 July 2006, Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh announced Rs 3,750 crore-package of relief measures to help the farmers in six worst affected districts of Amaravati, Akola, Washim, Buldhana, Yavatmal and Wardha in Vidarbha region[6] but the Central Government failed to release adequate funds.[7]

    The State Government continued to harass human rights defenders. On 3 January 2006, anti-slum demolition activist Rajkumar Kishanlal Awasthi was arrested in Mumbai under the Maharashtra Prevention of Slumlords, Bootleggers, Drug Offenders and Dangerous Persons Order, 1981 for demanding proper rehabilitation of the oustees due to the Mumbai Urban Transport Project funded by the World Bank.[8] He was earlier arrested on 14 October 2005 under a false charge of “accepting money” and was released on bail after spending 14 days in police custody.[9] According to National Alliance of People's Movements, only 5,000 people out of total 90,000 people who had been displaced by the Mumbai Urban Transport Project had been rehabilitated as of 10 January 2006.[10]

    Custodial deaths and extrajudicial executions were common. In a landmark judgement in November 2006, the Bombay High Court stated that death of Khwaja Yunus, an accused in the Ghatkopar blast case, occurred while he was in police custody.[11]

    The Dalits continued to face repression. The killing of four members of a Dalit family at Khairlanji village in Bhandara district on 29 September 2006 by upper caste people belonging to the Powar and Kalar communities highlighted the vulnerability of the Dalits.

    Women also faced violence. On 23 May 2006, a woman was allegedly raped by an army personnel identified as Subhash Chandra Lalsingh at her residence in Ambedkarnagar in Nashik. The accused was arrested on 24 May 2006.[12] On 3 April 2006, constable Sunil More was sentenced to 12 years' rigorous imprisonment by a Sessions Court for raping a college girl on 21 April 2005 inside a police chowky at Marine Drive in Mumbai.[13]

    The Maharashtra State Human Rights Commission (MSHRC) established on 6 March 2001 had been virtually defunct. Since the resignation of Chairperson Justice Arvind Sawant in April 2002 in protest against the indifferent attitude of the State Government towards the Commission, the Commission had been functioning without a Chairperson. The MSHRC failed to bring out any Annual Report since the publication of the first Annual Report 2001-2002 on 15 August 2004.[14]

    While MSHRC remained virtually defunct, judiciary was plagued by a large number of pending cases. The Bombay High Court had only 60 judges against the sanctioned strength of 64 judges leaving a vacancy for 4 judges by the end of December 2006. There were 274 vacancies in the District and Sub-ordinate Courts in the State as of 30th September 2006. This was despite the fact that as of 30th September 2006, there were a total of 3,59,698 cases pending before the Bombay High Court while 41,60,126 cases were pending with the District and Sub-ordinate Courts in the State.[15]

    2. Human rights violations by the security forces

    The security forces were responsible for gross human rights violations including custodial deaths and extrajudicial executions.

    a. Custodial deaths

    According to the Maharashtra State Human Rights Commission (MSHRC), 218 cases of custodial deaths were registered during 1 April 2003-31 March 2004, and 95 custodial death cases were registered from 1 April 2004 to 31 August 2004 alone.[16] The National Crime Records Bureau recorded deaths of 17 persons in police custody and death of 19 civilians in police firing during 2005.[17]

    During 2006, Asian Centre for Human Rights documented a few cases of custodial deaths. Often, custodial death cases were sought to be brushed aside by blaming the victim for committing suicide. On 6 April 2006, Premnath Rao, who was arrested on 4 April 2006 in connection with a robbery case, died at the lock-up of Agripada police station in south central Mumbai. The police claimed that the deceased was found hanging in the toilet. However, Rao's family and neighbours accused the police of beating Rao to death.[18] The first post-mortem report conducted at JJ Hospital in Mumbai reportedly found ten injury marks on the deceased's body. Five of the injury marks were found on his arms and two on his soles, indicating that “he was beaten with something like a stick, and this has led to internal bleeding”. The remaining marks were around his neck, which had been caused due to the hanging.[19]

    Others who died in police custody included Rampal Yadav, who died on 3 January 2006 at Goregaon police station in Mumbai after he was arrested on the charges of possessing illegal arms;[20] and Ganesh Bhowale who died at Kaiji police station in Beed district on 19 June 2006.[21]

    On 5 July 2006, five policemen – Inspector N G Sheikh, Assistant Police Inspector M A Hani, Sub-Inspector Dattatraya Kada, constables Shashikant Nanaware and Vitthal Deshmukh were booked on charges of murder of Ganesh Bhowale.[22]

    b. Extra-judicial killings

    According to the estimate of Asian Centre for Human Rights, the security forces killed 36 alleged Naxalites in the State during 2006. However, there were also allegations of fake encounter killings.

    The police were responsible for indiscriminate use of fire-arms against the protestors. Many civilians were killed in indiscriminate police firing during 2006.

    Those killed in indiscriminate police firing include Praful Kisanrao Raut who was killed during a protest rally demanding release of water from Chargarh dam in Chandur Bazar tehsil in Amravati district 20 February 2006;[23] Ramjan Khan and Abdul Malik who were killed in Bhiwandi town in Thane district on 5 July 2006;[24] and Dinesh Tukaram Ghugul, a farmer, who was killed at Wani on 8 December 2006.[25]

    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs

    The armed opposition groups were also responsible for violations of international humanitarian laws. According to the estimate of Asian Centre for Human Rights (ACHR), the Naxalites killed 24 persons including 20 civilians and 4 security personnel in the State during 2006.[26]  The most gruesome was the killing of 12 civilians including two women and two teenaged girls of a marriage party in a powerful bomb blast planted by the Naxalites near Halewada village in Gadchiroli district on 16 May 2006.[27]

    Many were killed after being accused of “police informers”. Some of the cases of such killings documented by ACHR included killing of Alal Ram Gond after being dragged out of his house at Murumgaon in Gadchiroli district on 16 June 2006;[28] Sunil Sitaram Karangami, a tribal youth, at Phulbodi village in Dhanora tehsil in Gadchiroli district on the night of 24 October 2006;[29] and a forest guard identified as Rajkumar Percheralwar near Jambia village in Etapalli tehsil under Godchiroli district on 28 December 2006.[30]

    Political leaders were also targeted. On 4 June 2006, Congress leader Pyarelal Agarwal was shot dead by alleged Naxalites at Korchi in Gadchiroli district.[31]

    The Naxalites also extorted from the contractors of tendu units. According to the police, the Naxalites collected Rs 100 per tendu bag and there were 2,000 bags in one tendu unit. In 2006, over 70 out of 91 tendu units in Gadchiroli district were auctioned.[32] In Gadchiroli district, the transporters whose trucks were hired for carrying forest produce like bamboo had to pay Rs 10,000 per truck per month to the Naxalites.[33]

    The Naxalites also targeted the economic infrastructure. On the night of 14 January 2006, Naxalites attacked a Border Roads Organisation (BRO) camp and killed a BRO engineer identified as M Ganeshan at Etapalli village in Gadchiroli district. The Naxalites also set ablaze four trucks belonging to the BRO.[34] On 23 January 2006, the Naxalites set ablaze a mobile relay unit, electronic equipment cables, stabilizers and other material of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) at Korchi in Gadchiroli district.[35]

    4. Violations of the rights of the Dalits

    On 15 November 2006, while visiting the trouble torn areas of Amravati city, Deputy Chief Minister and Home Minister of Maharashtra, R.R. Patil stated that the State Government was considering the proposal of arming the Dalits in villages where they were in minority to protect themselves from the attacks of the upper castes. Nothing more could have reflected the abysmal failure of the State to protect the Dalits.

    Mr. R.R. Patil made this announce-ment following violent protests from the Dalits against the killing of four members of a Dalit family at Khairlanji village in Bhandara district on 29 September 2006 by upper caste people belonging to the Powar and Kalar communities. The assailants numbering around 150 persons, including woman dragged Bhaiyalal's wife Surekha and their 17-year-old daughter Priyanka, his two sons – Roshan and Sudhir out of their house and lynched them to death. Prior to lynching them, Surekha and Priyanka were reportedly stripped, paraded naked, beaten with bicycle chains, axes and bullock cart pokers and publicly gang raped to death. Even after their death, some upper castes men allegedly raped them. Finally, sticks and rods were shoved into their genitals. Roshan and Sudhir too were brutally tortured, their genitals mutilated, faces disfigured and their bodies tossed in the air, before they lay dead on the ground. The only fault of the Dalit family was that Surekha had testified as a witness and identified 12 upper caste men who had beaten up Siddart Gajbhiye, a Dalit, on 3 September 2006.[36] Following violent street protests by the Dalits, the Maharashtra government on 14 November 2006 decided to hand over the investigation into the killing of four members of a Dalit family to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).[37] On 27 December 2006, the CBI filed a charge-sheet against 11 persons for their alleged involvement in the Khairlanji murder case. However, the CBI ruled out rape of the women victims.[38] On 4 December 2006, the State Government announced the dismissal of six policemen, including Deputy Superintendent of Police Vinayak Susadkar, for dereliction of duty in connection with the killings in Khairlanji.[39]

    The State Government also suppressed the democratic protests by the Dalits. On 17 November 2006, the Nagpur Bench of the Bombay High Court issued notices to the Principal Secretary (Home), the Commissioner of Police, Nagpur, the Commissioner of Police, Amravati, the Special Inspector-General of Police, Nagpur Range, and the Superintendent of Police, Bhandara district over atrocities by the police against activists who participated in the protests held in Vidarbha against the Khairlanji killings.[40]

    The police had arrested 31 persons who participated in the protest programmes against the Khairlanji killings. Those arrested included Karuna Gharde, her husband Siddharth, Kamlabai Narnavre, Anil Borkar of the People's Democratic Front of India and Sanjay Phulzale of the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena who were arrested on the night of 8 November 2006, and Ashu Saxena of Mahila Jan Andolan who was arrested on 9 November 2006. Many of them were arrested without arrest warrants and many of them complained of torture at the hands of the police. The police charged several of them with having links with the Naxalites.[41] On 4 December 2006, the police detained several leaders including Member of Parliament (MP) Ramdas Athavale, former Rajya Sabha MP Prakash Ambedkar, Rajendra Gavai, D. Raja, Secretary of Communist Party of India, Prakash Ambedkar, the grandson of Dr BR Ambedkar, Rajendra Gavai, son of Bihar Governor RS Gavai, who were supposed to attend a rally in Nagpur called by the Republican Party of India against the Khairlanji killings.[42]

    Another wave of protests by the Dalits was fueled following reports of desecration of the statue of Dr B R Ambedkar in Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh on 30 November 2006. Dalits of Maharashtra went on rampage in several parts of Maharashtra. They burnt two trains including the “Deccan Queen” and damaged over 100 buses. Three persons were killed, two of them in police firing and clashing with police in Osmanabad and Nashik, and over 60 others were injured.[43]

    On 29 November 2006, a Dalit youth identified as Rangnath Shankar Dhale was reportedly beaten to death by a mob in Nasik on the charge of throwing stones at vehicles during protests against desecration of the statue of Dr B R Ambedkar in Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh.[44] The NHRC sent a notice to the Nasik police chief to submit a report in this regard within a fortnight.[45]

    On 11 December 2006, a Dalit woman identified as Maya Balu Shejwal was attacked and her thatched hut set afire at the Maratha-dominated Brahmangaon village in Niphad tehsil of Nashik district. In her FIR lodged with the Lasalgaon police station, the victim named Ravi Karbhari Mahale, the member of the gram panchayat, Mangesh Gawli, son of upa sarpanch (deputy head of village), Anna Gawli, and Ashok Kargude, a clerk with the gram panchayat as her attackers who wanted to grab her land to construct a toilet. The police arrested all the three accused under the SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.[46]

    5. Repression on the freedom of the press

    The media continued to face repression from the right-wing political party activists.

    On 8 February 2006, activists of Shiv Sena, a right-wing political party, reportedly vandalized the Lower Parel office of Zee Marathi, a private TV channel, after a satirical play was staged at the annual awards show of the channel held at Bandra-Kurla complex on 5 February 2006. The Shiv Sainiks alleged that the play made fun of Shiv Sena chief, Bal Thackeray and his family members.[47]

    On the night of 6 February 2006, Sahara TV reporter Vivek Pralhadrao Tale was assaulted by some unidentified persons at Old Income Tax Office Square in Akola while he was on his way back home. A case was registered by Civil Lines police under sections 147, 148, 326 Indian Penal Code against unknown persons in the case.[48]

    On 19 February 2006, members of the right-wing Sambhaji Brigade ransacked the office of Loksatta, an Indian Express group publication, in Ahmednagar. The attackers, who were armed with rods destroyed computers, broke window panes and burnt files, damaged office furniture and beat up two employees who were present in the office. The attack was allegedly carried out because Loksatta had not published any article on the occasion of the birthday of Hindu king Shivaji.[49]

    On 10 June 2006, Arun Narayan Dekate, correspondent of Marathi daily Tarun Bharat, died of injuries after he was attacked with stones by four persons on the night of 8 June 2006 at Wakeshwar turning point near Dongrgaon in Nashik district on 8 June 2006. Mr. Dekate had exposed a gambling racket in and around Takalghat.[50]

    6. Status of the IDPs

    On 8 March 2006, the Narmada Control Authority (NCA) gave clearance for raising the height of Sardar Sarovar Dam to 121.92m from current 110.64 metres.[51]

    According to the NCA, a total of 3,453 families would be affected in 32 villages in Maharashtra by the Sardar Sarovar Project up to the height of 121.92 metres. These were 1,853 families from 23 villages under Akarani (C-1) tehsil and 1600 families from 9 villages under Akkalkuan (C-2) tehsil in Nandurbar district. The State Government of Maharashtra had claimed to have resettled all the 3,453 Project Affected Families (PAFs) including 722 PAFs resettled in Gujarat and 2,731 PAFs resettled in Maharashtra.[52] However, the Narmada Bachao Andolan claimed that about 2000 families were yet to be rehabilitated as of 4 January 2006.[53]

    7. Violations of the prisoners' rights

    The jails in Maharashtra were overcrowded. In a barrack at the Arthur Road prison in Mumbai, there were 157 under-trials against the total capacity for only 50 inmates as of 24 December 2006. On 23 December 2006, one under-trial identified as John D'Souza died in a clash among the prisoners over potable water.[54]  

    In December 2006, about 94 under-trials of Arthur Road jail threatened to launch hunger strike from 1 January 2007 against denial of speedy trial. These under-trials were arrested under the draconian Maharashtra Control of Organized Crime Act (MCOCA) of 1998. There were only two special court to try the MCOCA accused at Sewree and at Fort in South Mumbai respectively.[55]       

    8. Special Focus I: Starvation deaths

    On 3 March 2006, Minister of State for Agriculture, Food & Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs & Public Distribution, Dr. Akhilesh Prasad Singh in a written reply to Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Members of Parliament, Ms Hema Malini and Ms Maya Singh stated in Rajya Sabha that as many as 2,994 children in the age group of 0-6 years died due to various reasons including malnutrition up to July 2005 in Vidarbha. The figures in the districts of Nagpur Division were Nagpur (335), Gondia (187), Bhandara (333), Wardha (130), Gadchiroli (225) and Chandrapur (351), and the figures for districts in Amravati Division were Amravati (408), Akola (170), Yavatmal (513), Buldana (240) and Washim (102).[56]

    In March 2006, the workers of Integrated Child Development Scheme detected 700 cases of malnutrition, including 50 cases of Grade-IV malnutrition among children in the city of Nagpur.[57]

    Over 1,700 children reportedly died of malnutrition in Thane district in the last one year as of 7 April 2006.[58] During April 2005-March 2006, a total of 27 children reportedly died, including 15 children at the primary health centres (PHCs) at Vashala, Koma and Morada during April 2005-February 2006 and 12 children in March 2006 at Koma and Vasha PHCs.[59] Nine children reportedly died of malnutrition in the Mokhada tehsil of Thane in April 2006 alone.[60]

    9. Special Focus II: Farmers' suicides

    The Vidarbha region of Maharashtra had virtually turned into a killing field for farmers. On 29 December 2006, Vidarbha Jan Andolan Samiti (VJAS) stated that a total of 1,060 farmers committed suicide in Vidarbha region in 2006. This included 105 deaths in December 2006, 107 in November 2006, 112 in October 2006, 124 in September 2006, 111 in August 2006 and 90 in July 2006. In Yavatmal district, more than 344 cotton farmers committed suicides in 2006 of which 70% were tribals, Dalits and Banjaras. According to VJAS, 412 farmers had committed suicide in 2005, 324 in 2004, 156 in 2003, 102 in 2002, 54 in 2001, 46 in 2000, and 36 in 1999. The cotton farmers of West Vidarbha were worst affected. Out of 3 million farmers in West Vidarbha, more than 75% lived under extreme distress.[61]

    Earlier in December 2006, Mr Narayan Rane, Revenue Minister had reportedly admitted before the winter session of State Legislature that 1,843 farmers committed suicide in Maharashtra between January and October 2006. Of these, 1,316 died in Vidarbha region including 1,156 in the six districts of Amaravati, Akola, Washim, Buldhana, Yavatmal and Wardha. According to Mr Narayan Rane, Amravati Division reported the highest number of farmers' suicide of 1,024 followed by Nagpur Division (292), Aurangabad Division (281), Nashik (157), Pune (87) and Konkan Division (2). Yavatmal district reported the highest number of farmers' suicides which was 282 followed by Buldana district (248).[62]

    The Central Government and the State Government announced various relief packages for the farmers. But none of the programme or scheme was properly implemented.

    On 1 July 2006, Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh announced Rs 3,750 crore-package of relief measures to help the farmers in six worst affected districts of Amaravati, Akola, Washim, Buldhana, Yavatmal and Wardha in Vidarbha region. The relief package promised, among others, that the entire overdue interest (around Rs 712 crore as on 30 June 2006) would be waived off and all farmers would be immediately eligible for fresh loans, and Rs 1,296 crore of overdue loans as on 30 June 2006 would be rescheduled over a period of three to five years with a one-year moratorium. The Prime Minister also promised to ensure an additional credit flow of Rs 1,275 crore in 2006-07 in the six districts.[63]

    On 29 September 2006, the Central Cabinet cleared a Rs 16,978 crore rehabilitation package to help the farmers in 31 backward districts of four states - Maharashtra (6 districts), Andhra Pradesh (16 districts), Karnataka (6 districts) and Kerala (3 districts). Under the package which  would be implemented over a period of three years, Andhra Pradesh would be allocated Rs 9,650 crore, while Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra would get Rs 765 crore, Rs 2,689 crore and Rs 3,873 crore respectively.[64]

    But since the Prime Minister's announcement, more than 650 farmers ended their lives in the region, according to the estimate of Vidarbha Jan Andolan Samiti.[65]

    The revelations of Mr Narayan Rane, Revenue Minister, during the winter session of State Legislature in December 2006 exposed how the tall promises of both the Central Government and the State Government were never implemented. Narayan Rane informed the State Legislature that of the total Rs 3,750 crore package announced by the Prime Minister, only Rs 16.93 crore had reached the farmers as on 6 December 2006. Of the total provision of Rs 3,753 crore under the Prime Minister's package, only Rs 57.83 crore had been received by the farmers till 9 November 2006 and only Rs 16.93 crore had been spent. The Prime Minister had announced interest waiver of Rs 712 crore but only Maharashtra Government had contributed its share of Rs 356 crore and not a single penny had been received from the Centre. Of the provision of Rs 2,177 crore for the irrigation scheme, not a single pie was received till 9 November 2006. Of the Rs 240 crore allocation for construction of check dams, only Rs 7.20 crore had been received but the State government did not spend any money on actual construction. Of the promised allocation of Rs 135 crore for providing supplementary income sources to distressed farmers, only Rs 6 crore had been received from the Centre and not a single pie had reached the farmers. In addition, the Maharashtra Government had declared a relief package of Rs 1,075 crore in 2005 but had released only Rs 916.10 crore, out of which only Rs 801.53 crore had actually reached the farmers.[66]

    In March 2006, Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh announced the State Government's decision to reopen and review 300 cases of farmers' suicides in Vidharbha during 2001-2006 in which the next of the kin of deceased had been denied compensation.[67]



    [1]. Spl Action Group formed to combat Naxal menace, The Hitavada, 2 November 2006 

    [2]. Now, villages shutting out Naxalites will receive Rs 3 lakh, in one go, The Indian Express, 28 November 2006 

    [3]. Govt admits to nearly 3,000 child deaths in Vidarbha, The Hitavada, 4 March 2006

    [4]. Malnutrition claims nine kids in a week in Thane, The Free Press Journal, 8 April 2006 

    [5]. Farmers Suicides Very-Urgent- Press-Note Dated 29th December 2006, Vidarbha Jan Andolan Samiti available at http://andolan.blogspot.com/2006_12_01_archive.html

    [6]. Rs 3,750-cr relief for six Vidarbha districts, The Hindu Business Line, 2 July 2006, http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2006/07/02/stories/2006070202980300.htm

    [7]. 1,843 farmers' suicide, 3,753 cr package, only 16.93 cr actually given, The Hitavada, 7 December 2006 

    [8]. Email communication to ACHR from  National Alliance of People's Movements, 10 January 2006

    [9]. National Alliance Of People's Movements, Press Note/ Appeal, 6 January 2006 

    [10]. Email communication to ACHR from  National Alliance of People's Movements, 10 January 2006

    [11]. HC certain Yunus died in custody, The Free Press Journal, 21 November 2006 

    [12]. Army jawan held for rape, The Indian Express, 26 May 2006

    [13]. Police rapist gets 12 years, govt seeks life, The Telegraph, 4 April 2006 

    [14]. Mah Rights panel lies defunct, The Hitavada, 30 May 2006 

    [15]. Court News, Supreme Court of India, October-December 2006 

    [16]. http://mshrc.maharashtra.gov.in/caseworkShow.php

    [17]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau

    [18]. Undertrial found hanging in lock-up, The Free Press Journal, 7 April 2006 

    [19]. Custody death: First autopsy reveals injuries, The Times of India, 13 April 2006 

    [20]. Accuses dies in police custody at Goregaon, The Free Press Journal, 4 January 2006 

    [21]. Custodial death of accused: 4 cops, PI booked, The Free Press Journal, 7 July 2006 

    [22]. Custodial death of accused: 4 cops, PI booked, The Free Press Journal, 7 July 2006 

    [23]. One killed in firing as Sena stir for water turns violent, The Hitavada, 21 February 2006 

    [24]. Two killed in Bhiwandi firing, The Hindustan Times, 6 July 2006

    [25]. Farmer killed as cops open fire in Wani, The Hitavada, 9 December 2006 

    [26]. Naxal Conflict in 2006, Asian Centre for Human Rights, 10 January 2007 

    [27]. 12 killed as Maoists target marriage party, The Times of India, 17 May 2006 

    [28]. Maoist shoot man suspected to be police informer, The Hitavada, 17 June 2006

    [29]. Outlaws kill villager, The Hitavada, 27 October 2006 

    [30]. Naxalites kill forest guard, The Hitavada, 29 December 2006 

    [31]. Naxals kill Congress leader in Nagpur, The Free Press Journal, 5 June 2006 

    [32]. Naxals may step up extortion in Gadchiroli, The Hitavada, 14 May 2006 

    [33]. This is how they pay booty to Naxals, The Hitavada, 26 June 2006 

    [34]. Maharashtra: BRO engineer killed, trucks set ablaze in Naxal raid, Indian Express, 16 January 2006 

    [35]. Naxals set ablaze BSNL unit, tipper, The Hitavada, 25 January 2006 

    [36]. Episodic reactions for 60 years: Arming the Dalits Now? Asian Centre for Human Rights, ACHR Review, 29 November 2006

    [37]. CBI to probe Khairlanji Dalit killings, The Indian Express, 15 November 2005 

    [38]. 11 charged in dalit killings, The Asian Age, 28 December 2006 

    [39]. DALIT RAGE - 6 policemen sacked for Khairlanji killings, The Hindustan Times, 5 December 2006 

    [40]. Notice to 5 officials over dalit action, The Asian Age, 18 November 2006 

    [41]. Activists allege police harassment, The Hindu, 20 November 2006 

    [42]. Police swoop down on protesters in Nagpur, The Times of India, 5 December 2006 

    [43]. UP statue gets politics and rage to stoke fires across Maharashtra, The Indian Express,  1 December 2006

    [44]. Dalit beaten to death, The Hindu, 30 November 2006

    [45]. Dalit's death: NHRC notice to Nasik police chief, The Hindu, 10 December 2006 

    [46]. Dalit's hut set on fire in Nashik, village, 3 arrested, The Indian Express, 12 December 2006 

    [47]. Thackeray 'thanks' Sainiks for vandalism, The Asian Age, 10 February 2006 

    [48]. Sahara scribe assaulted at Akola, The Hitavada, 9 February 2006 

    [49]. Intolerance and intimidation of media in India must end, says IFJ, International Federation of Journalists, 21 February 2006, http://www.ifj-asia.org/page/india060221b.html

    [50]. Assaulted scribe dies of injuries, The Hindu, 12 June 2006 

    [51]. http://nca.gov.in/imp_date.htm

    [52]. http://nca.gov.in/rnr_C.htm

    [53]. 'Corruption' is rehabilitation in the Narmada Valley - the Andolan exposes the scam, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Press Release dated 04 January 2006 

    [54]. 1 dies in Arthur Rd jail clash, Times of India, 24 December 2006 

    [55]. Jail inmates threaten strike, The Times of India, 24 October 2006 

    [56]. Govt admits to nearly 3,000 child deaths in Vidarbha, The Hitavada, 4 March 2006 

    [57]. 700 cases of malnutrition in Nagpur city; 50 of Grade IV, The Hitavada, 27 March 2006 

    [58]. Malnutrition claims nine kids in a week in Thane, The Free Press Journal, 8 April 2006 

    [59]. 27 children die due to malnutrition in Thane, The Free Press Journal, 6 April 2006 

    [60]. Malnutrition claims nine kids in a week in Thane, The Free Press Journal, 8 April 2006 

    [61]. Farmers Suicides Very-Urgent- Press-Note Dated 29th December 2006, Vidarbha Jan Andolan Samiti available at http://andolan.blogspot.com/2006_12_01_archive.html

    [62]. 1,843 farmers' suicide, 3,753 cr package, only 16.93 cr actually given, The Hitavada, 7 December 2006 

    [63]. Rs 3,750-cr relief for six Vidarbha districts, The Hindu Business Line, 2 July 2006, http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2006/07/02/stories/2006070202980300.htm

    [64]. Cabinet okays Rs 16,978-cr package for farmers, The Times of India, 30 September 2006 

    [65]. Farmers Suicides Very-Urgent- Press-Note Dated 29th December 2006, Vidarbha Jan Andolan Samiti available at http://andolan.blogspot.com/2006_12_01_archive.html

    [66]. 1,843 farmers' suicide, 3,753 cr package, only 16.93 cr actually given, The Hitavada, 7 December 2006 

    [67]. Compensation for Farmers' kin - 300 cases to be reopened, The Free Press Journal, 2 March 2006

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