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  • Chhattisgarh

    1. Overview.. 1
    2. Human rights violations by the security forces. 2
    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs. 4
    a. Indiscriminate killing of civilians. 4
    b. Trials in Jana Adalats. 7
    c. Kidnappings. 7
    d. Obstacles to development 8
    4. Violence against women. 9
    5. Violations of the prisoners' rights. 10
    6. Repression on the freedom of the press. 10
    7. Status of the IDPs. 11
    8. Violations of the rights of the child. 12


    1. Overview

    Chhattisgarh was the epicentre of the Naxalite conflict in India during 2006. According to the estimate of Asian Centre for Human Rights (ACHR), 363 persons including 200 civilians, 57 security personnel and 106 alleged Naxalites were killed in Chhattisgarh which accounted for 48.5% of the total killings (749 persons) in India due to the Naxalite conflict during 2006.

    With 48.5% of the total killings being reported from Chhattisgarh, the anti-Naxalite Salwa Judum campaign with its disastrous consequences such as the violations of the right to life by the Naxalites and the security forces, forcible displacement of 43,740 persons as of 31 December 2006 and abdication of the law and order to the lawless and unaccountable Salwa Judum cadres brought national and international spotlight on the Naxalite conflict in India.

    While the security forces continued to violate human rights, the chilling massacres of the unarmed civilians by the Naxalites in 2006 were unprecedented. The major incidents of killing of civilians by the Naxalites were Darbhaguda massacre of 28 February 2006 in which 27 persons were killed, Monikonta massacre of April 2006 in which 15 unarmed villagers were killed after abduction, Errabore massacre of 17 July 2006 in which 31 persons were massacred. In some of the massacres, many innocent victims were killed by the Naxalites in the most despicable manner through repeated stabbing and slitting of the victims' throats in front of other hostages or villagers.

    The conflict internally displaced over 45,000 persons and the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) were living in deplorable conditions. The rights of women and children were violated on a regular basis.

    In a further attempt to favour particular dominant religion, in August 2006, State Home Minister Ram Vichar Netam introduced a bill to amend the Chhattisgarh Dharma Swatantra Adhiniyam (Chhattisgarh Religious Freedom Act) of 1968 to allow people to return to their original religion. The bill proposed an amendment that “returning to forefather's religion or his original religion will not be treated as conversion”. The government also proposed to include a clause in the bill to make it mandatory for anyone who wanted to change his/her religion to apply to the District Collector (DC) at least 30 days in advance.  The DC will have the right to reject such an application. Anyone who violated this clause could be punished with a jail term of up to three years and a fine of Rs 20,000.[1]

    Apart from being specifically targeted in armed conflict situations, women were also victimized by the societal cruelties. The adoption of the Witchcraft Atrocities (Prevention) Act, 2005 by the Government of Chhattisgarh in July 2005[2] failed to prevent abuses against women on the charges of being “witches”. According to official sources, as many as 22 cases of harassment of women on the charges of practicing witchcraft were reported in the State during 2005. About 10 of the victims were reportedly killed.[3]

    Many women and children were recruited as Special Police Officers. This was confirmed by National Commission for Women after its visit to Dantewada in December 2006.[4]

    All the prisons were overcrowded and administration of justice was clogged with  a total of 77,980 cases pending before the Chhattisgarh High Court and a total of 2,69,068 cases pending before the District and Sub-ordinate Courts as on 30 September 2006. Yet, there were vacancy of two judges in the Chhattisgarh High Court by the end of December 2006 and 23 vacancies in the District and Subordinate Courts as on 30 September 2006.[5]

    In March 2006, President of India gave assent to the Chhattisgarh Special Public Security Bill 2005 making it a law.[6] The Act considered any expression “by uttering words or in writing form or by indication or by visual representation or otherwise” as an unlawful activity, and provided stern penal action.

    2. Human rights violations by the security forces

    According to the estimate of Asian Centre for Human Rights, the security forces killed 114 persons including 106 alleged Naxalites and 8 civilians in Chhattisgarh during 2006.[7]

    It is clear that the security forces dubbed all persons killed by them as “Naxalites”. However, many of these claims were far from the truth.  An All India team of women activists which visited Dantewada district from 30 September to 2 October 2006 in its report alleged that four civilian women were killed by the security forces and the Salwa Judum activists in 2006.[8]

    On 22 December 2006, two civilians identified as Renu Oya and Subal (both aged about 20 years) of Mar Pakhanjur village in Kanker district were allegedly killed by the Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra Police during a joint operation. When the two youths went missing on the morning of 22 December 2006, the villagers of Mar Pakhanjur went to Vande police station under Kanker district to report their disappearance. In the police station, they came to know about the killing of three persons by the police who claimed they were Naxalites but the police allegedly refused to show the dead bodies to the villagers. Some of the villagers were beaten up when they demanded to know the identities of the dead bodies. The police also reportedly refused to accept their First Information Report. On 25 December 2006, a group of villagers again reached the police station to inquire the identities of the deceased. They were shown the photographs of the two dead bodies. The villagers identified them as Renu Oya and Subal of their village. But the police allegedly forced the villagers to file a First Information Report stating that Renu Oya and Subal were missing.[9]

    Many of the encounter killings of “Naxalites” by the security forces were challenged. Secretary of Communist Party of India, South Bastar, Manish Kunjam alleged that on 8 June 2006, several villagers were killed by the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel during a crossfire with the Naxalites at Dewarpalli village in Dantewada district. The raid by the CRPF took place when the Naxalites were conducting a meeting where a large number of villagers were also present. Following the encounter the police had cordoned off the village for two days and did not allow anyone to visit the area in order to cover up the number of civilians killed.[10] But Superintendent of Police of Dantewada, Pravir Das claimed that no civilian was killed in the encounter. He claimed that eight Naxalites were killed and five others, including two women, were arrested.[11] The Naxalites also claimed that “police had killed innocent villagers of Dewarpalli”.[12]

    The security forces were also responsible for indiscriminate use of fire-arms against innocent civilians. On 6 June 2006, a security personnel reportedly opened fire at two innocent boys identified as Ramesh (10) and Ramsingh (8) who were playing in front of their house mistaking them as Maoists in Dantewada. The accused security personnel was allegedly drunk. While Ramesh sustained bullet injury on his leg, a bullet pierced through Ramsingh's hand. They were admitted to Bijapur Hospital and later shifted to Maharani Hospital. Taking cognizance of the incident, Chhattisgarh State Human Rights Commission sought detailed report from the Superintendent of Police of Dantewada.[13]

    There were also reports of custodial deaths. On 1 June 2006, hundreds of villagers from Ruatala demonstrated in front of Dongargarh police station in Rajnandgaon district against alleged custodial death of one Manthir on the same day and demanded action against the guilty police officers. But the police authorities claimed that the deceased had not been arrested by the police and hence there was no question of his death in their custody.[14]

    In July 2006, Chhattisgarh State General Secretary of Loktantrik Samajwadi Party, Ashok Panda condemned the death in police custody of 53-year-old Kranti Yadao after being picked up for interrogation for alleged theft of four buffalos in Shivarinarayan police thana, Janjgir of Bhilai district.[15]

    In a landmark judgement, on 20 July 2006 the Chhattisgarh High Court directed the Central Bureau of Investigation to probe into the alleged custodial killing of a tribal youth Ram Kumar Dhruv at Suhela police station of Raipur district on 13 August 2004. The Court also ordered the State to pay a compensation of Rs 10 lakh to the next of kin of the deceased and to initiate a departmental inquiry against two doctors who had conducted the first post mortem of the deceased and submitted false report. An NGO, Forum for Fact-finding, Documentation and Advocacy had moved the High Court for justice.[16]

    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs

    The Naxalites were responsible for gross violations of international humanitarian laws including abduction, hostage taking, torture, hacking to death, shooting from point blank range, executions after trial by its socalled Peoples' Court, Jana Adalat etc. The Salwa Judum activists, police informers, class enemies among the impoverished Adivasis and those who defy their diktat have been specific targets of the Naxalites.

    The Naxalites were also responsible for forcible recruitment of children. The Communist Party of India (Maoists) continued to practice forcible recruitment of at least one person from one family in the Naxalite controlled areas.

    a. Indiscriminate killing of civilians

    The Naxalites were responsible for the killing of 249 persons including 192 civilians and   57 security personnel in the State. The civilians were targets of worst attacks primarily due to the Salwa Judum campaign initiated in June 2005. In some of the massacres, many innocent victims were killed in the most despicable manner including through repeated stabbing and slitting of the victims' throats in front of other hostages or villagers on the charges of being supporters of the Salwa Judum or “police informers”.

    On the morning of 28 February 2006, 27 villagers were killed and at least 32 others injured in a landmine blast and attack by the Naxalites at Darbhaguda village under Konta Tehsil of Dantewada district. The villagers were returning to the Errabore relief camp after attending a Salwa Judum meeting at Dornapal relief camp. District Collector of Dantewada Mr. K R Pisda informed an investigating team from ACHR that some 150-200 Naxalites came out of the forests from both sides of the road and clubbed or stabbed to death 17 of the injured after the explosion. This was corroborated by the family members of the deceased and survivors whom the ACHR representatives interviewed while undergoing treatment in the nearby hospital in Bhadrachalam district of Andhra Pradesh.[17]

    On the night of 24 March 2006, 13 civilians were reportedly killed when the Naxalites blew up a private jeep near Pakhanjore in Kanker district. The victims were mostly traders and porters who were returning from the weekly market at Sangham village. The deceased were identified as Gobindo Nandi, Arun Biswas, Kalachand Bhavak, Bipul Das, Sudhanshu Kundu, Bishnu De, Tapan Samaddar, Bipul Dutta, Kiran Bagchi, Manoj, Rajak Esabeda, Pradeep Shah and Wajeed Khan.[18] The Naxalite leadership apologized for the incident stating that they had mistaken the civilian jeep for a police vehicle.[19]

    On 25 April 2006, Naxalites kidnapped 52 tribals including 13 women from Manikonta village in Dantewada district while they were returning to the relief camp at Dornapal. The villagers were being sheltered at Dornapal relief camp and had gone to Manikonta village to bring their personal belongings. The Naxalites killed 15 villagers in custody and released the rest. While the bullet-ridden bodies of two abducted villagers were recovered on 28 April 2006, bodies of 13 other villagers were recovered from a deep forest with slit throats. The bodies also bore multiple wounds, meaning that they were brutally tortured before being killed.[20] The rest 37 abductees were released on 29 April 2006 after warning that they would not join the Salwa Judum programme of the government. Representatives of Asian Centre for Human Rights met some of the released hostages. They told ACHR representatives that their captors “selected” 13 hostages, tied their hands from behind and blindfolded them. Then, the Naxalites allegedly stabbed them repeatedly before slitting their throats in front of other hostages. The hostages were allegedly denied adequate food and were forced to drink urine when they demanded water.[21]

    On 8 July 2006, Naxalites killed two villagers, one of whom was identified as Puppo Penta, Secretary of Arganta Gram Panchayat, after abducting them along with seven others from near Birla village in Bijapur police district. The four villagers who fled from the Naxalites' captivity stated that the two victims were brutally axed to death in front of other villagers.[22]

    In a pre-dawn strike on 17 July 2006, about 1000 armed Naxalites swooped down the relief camp, the CRPF camp and the police station nearby at Errobore village in Dantewada district.[23] The Naxalites killed 31 inmates on the spot, including an infant and a 6-year-old girl and injured 21 others.[24] The relief camp that housed about 4,000 displaced tribals was burnt to ashes. Five tribal inmates perished in the fire while most of the other victims were hacked to death.[25] The Naxalites also abducted 41 tribals, including 32 women from the relief camp. On 18 July 2006, the Naxalites killed six of the abducted[26] while the rest were later released.

    Some other cases of killing of civilians in Chhattisgarh documented by ACHR included killing of alleged Salwa Judum activist, Devkumar Sahu at Paniyajeb village under Bortalav police station in Dantewada district on 17 March 2006[27], killing of three alleged Salwa Judum activists including Toda and Krishna Rao at Kunnapara in Gangalur on 8 April 2006,[28] alleged Salwa Judum activist Chamruram Raiti, son of Sampatram Baiti, near Mirtur village in Bijapur police district on the night of 18 April 2006,[29] two alleged Salwa Judum activists including Telam Koaram, head of the Tumnar village in Bijapur on 14 June 2006,[30] Hirma Honga Muria near Dewarpalli in Dantewada district on 12 September 2006,[31] Ishwar Pudo from Patanbori village in Rajnandgaon district on 19 September 2006,[32] Sukku Ram at Nelawada village under Narayanpur police district on 8 November 2006,[33] and Podayami Bheema, an inmate of Dornapal relief camp in Dantewada district on 27 November 2006.[34]

    The Naxalites also killed political leaders. On the night of 30 March 2006, suspected Naxalites shot dead two local Bharatiya Janata Party leaders identified as Ramchandra Sinha and Babla in Rajnandgaon district. While Ramchandra Sinha, spokesman of BJP's Dongergarh unit, was dragged out of his residence at Charbhata village and shot dead, Babla was shot dead at Sendri village, about 12 km from Dongergaon.[35]

    On 24 September 2006, Congress leader Santuram Usendi was killed by alleged Naxalites near Orcha under Narayanpur police district.[36]

    b. Trials in Jana Adalats

    In their strongholds, the Naxalites run parallel justice system. The Naxalites continued to deliver kangaroo justice through socalled Jana Adalats, Peoples' Courts. In some cases, the villagers turned to the Naxalites for justice.[37]

    On the night of 13 June 2006, the Naxalites allegedly beat to death Samaru Ram, the Sarpanch (village head) of Edka village under Narayanpur police station area after he was sentenced to death in a Jan Adalat for allegedly demanding a police station in the village. He was beaten in full public view and left to die without access to any medical help.[38]

    On 3 July 2006, the Naxalites reportedly shot dead Congress leader Chhannu Ram Bhatti, who was also a member of the Salwa Judum campaign, in the presence of more than 500 tribals following a trial at Jana Adalat at Nilwaya village under Kante Kalyan police station in Dantewara district. The Jana Adalat found him guilty of working against the Naxalites and pronounced the death sentence.[39]

    c. Kidnappings

    The Naxalites kidnapped both civilians and security personnel. Some of the instances of kidnappings are given below.

    On 9 January 2006, Naxalites reportedly abducted 35 people from three villages of Kachapal, Kutur and User in Narayanpur under Dantewada district.[40]

    On 12 March 2006, six policemen were abducted by the Naxalites near Chintagufa area in Dantewada district and demanded immediate withdrawal of anti-Naxal operations in Bastar area as a condition for their release.[41] All the six policemen were released on 13 March 2006.[42] 

    On 3 June 2006, Naxalites reportedly abducted seven tribals, including three women at Errrabore in Dantewada district.[43]

    On 15 June 2006, suspected Naxalites abducted nine villagers from Argatta village under Dornapal police station in Bijapur district. The villagers were returning to Dornapal relief camp from the village.[44]

    On 8 July 2006, Naxalites reportedly abducted nine villagers including Puppo Penta, Secretary of Arganta Gram Panchayat, Soyam Lacca, a teacher, Sodi Munna, peon of Birla Ashram school from a bus near Birla village in Bijapur police district. According to police sources, the Naxalites brutally axed to death two hostages including Mr Penta in front of other hostages on the night of 8 July 2006. The bodies were recovered in the Birla forests on 9 July 2006. Four other hostages managed to escape from custody.[45]

    On 7 September 2006, Naxalites abducted two constables of Koyilibeda police station identified as Ajen Nareti and Shi Charan Markam while they were returning in a motorcycle from Antagarh in Kanker district.[46]

    On 4 November 2006, Naxalites abducted 12 tribal villagers from a place near village Kothiguda in Dantewada district. The abducted tribals were inmates of the Dornapal police relief camp and had left the camp for their village to bring some goods from their homes. Five of the hostages were reportedly released on the same day.[47]

    d. Obstacles to development

    The Naxalites remained a major obstacle to development, particularly in the rural areas.

    On 5 March 2006, Naxalites blasted a railway engine and damaged a part of Bhansi Railway station in Dantewada district and abducted six railway staff. The railway officials were released with a warning.[48]

    Government-owned National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) came under repeated attacks from the  Naxalites  during 2006. On the night of 9 February 2006, Maoists attacked NMDC depot at Hiroli in Dantewada district, and looted 50 tonnes of explosives and 17 rifles. Eight CISF personnel were killed in the attack.[49] The NMDC was attacked again on the night of 21 March 2006,[50] on 20 May 2006[51] and on 30 October 2006.[52]

    On 20 May 2006, the Naxalites attacked important installations in Dantewada district including that of Railways, and private steel company ESSAR.[53]

    The Naxalites also targeted school buildings. On 18 October 2006, the Naxalites reportedly destroyed four government buildings, including two schools in Kanker district.[54] On 27 October 2006, the Naxalites blew up three school buildings at Koitpal village under Bijapur police district.[55]

    4. Violence against women

    Apart from being targeted in armed conflict situations, women were also victimized by societal cruelties. The adoption of the Witchcraft Atrocities (Prevention) Act, 2005 by the Government of Chhattisgarh in July 2005[56] failed to prevent abuses against women on the charges of being “witches”. According to official sources, as many as 22 cases of harassment of women on the charges of practicing witchcraft were reported in Chhattisgarh during 2005. 10 of the victims were reportedly killed.[57]

    Across Dantewada district, the security forces and the Salwa Judum activists were allegedly responsible for violence against women, including torture, killing and rape. However, these allegations were very hard to verify independently given the restrictions imposed on journalists and civil society groups, and the prevailing atmosphere of insecurity.[58]

    Women form a major chunk of Maoists' cadres. According to Kosa, the Central Committee member of CPI (Maoist) and the Secretary of Dandakaranya Special Zonal Committee, nearly 50 per cent of the CPI (Maoist)'s active members in Dandakaranya region were women.[59] The police claimed that tribal girls were forcibly recruited into the organization by the Naxalites and were allegedly sexually exploited.[60] This was corroborated by the former woman Naxals. Women members were allegedly used as decoy to instigate innocent village girls to join Maoists' group. The women cadres had to cook meals and were allegedly sexually exploited by the male cadres.[61]

    5. Violations of the prisoners' rights

    Chhattisgarh has four Central Jails, seven District Jails and 16 Sub Jails. According to the Government of Chhattisgarh, “the lock-up in the jails of the State is double the capacity”.[62]

    All the jails in the State were overcrowded. According to the latest statistics available on the website of the Jail Department of the Government of Chhattisgarh, the four Central Jails of the State housed a total of 6,436 inmates against the capacity of 2,493. While Central Jail, Raipur housed 2,718 prisoners against the capacity of 1,130, Central Jail, Bilaspur housed 1,657 prisoners against its capacity of 572, Central Jail, Jagdalpur had 1,264 prisoners against the capacity of 548, and Central Jail, Ambikapur housed 797 prisoners against the capacity of 243.  Similarly, all the District Jails and Sub Jails were also overcrowded. Six District jails[63] housed 1,556 prisoners against the total capacity of 855. 16 Sub Jails in the State housed 1,751 inmates against the total capacity of 815.[64]

    On 3 November 2006, an under-trial prisoner identified as Johan Ram Sonkar, son of Bharat of Gunderdehi, reportedly died in the district hospital in Durg. The deceased's parents alleged that he had earlier complained to them about mental and physical harassment by other inmates. The deceased's parents also claimed that there were visible injury marks on the body. A magisterial inquiry was ordered into the death.[65]

    6. Repression on the freedom of the press

    The Chhattisgarh Special Public Security Act 2005 was signed into law by the President of India in March 2006.[66] The Act includes any expression “by uttering words or in writing form or by indication or by visual representation or otherwise” as an unlawful activity and prohibits any journalist from reporting any activity which has been termed as “unlawful”. The Act also severely restricts freedom of association, assembly and collective bargaining as public rallies, meetings, seminar or symposium of the political parties, the civil society groups and victims aggrieved with policies and practices of the State Government or its institutions can be banned.[67]

    The journalists faced repression both from the State and the non-state actors such as the Naxalites and the anti-Naxalite Salwa Judum.

    On 15 November 2006, Hindsat journalist, Afzal Khan was beaten up by the members of the anti-Maoist group, Salwa Judum in Bhopalpatnam. The Salwa Judum leaders openly threatened Afzal Khan, his brother and Jansatta journalist, Zar Khan and other journalists through a loudspeaker during a public meeting in a high school in Bhopalpatnam. Later Afzal Khan was summoned and beaten up by the leaders of the Salwa Judum campaign and the Special Police Officers for allegedly writing anti-Salwa Judum reports. He was asked to leave Bhopalpatnam along with his family.[68]

    On 16 January 2006, the International Federation of Journalists expressed concern over the continued harassment and threat to the life of Kamlesh Paikra, a regional language journalist, by the State for his reports on the Naxalite conflict.[69]

    On 7 March 2006, four photographers who were assigned official duty to take photographs of people engaged in work under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme were abducted by the alleged Naxalites from Durgakundal and Saradukamre villages under Kanker district. Two journalists were abducted from each village.[70]

    7. Status of the IDPs

    Thousands have fled their villages and abandoned their paddy fields fearing retaliation either by the Naxalites for opposing them or by the Salwa Judum activists, consisting of Adivasi villagers and the security forces, for supporting Naxalites. The Bastar region comprising three districts of Kanker, Bastar and Dantewada are affected by Salwa Judum campaign. Dantewada having 1,354 villages in 11 Development Blocks is the largest district in the Bastar region and is the worst affected district.

    A team of ACHR undertook a visit to study the conditions of the IDP camps in Dantewada from 4 to 6 March 2006. The team found the following.[71]

    As on 4 March 2006, there were a total of 45,958 Adivasi villagers from 644 villages in 6 blocks of Dantewada district who had been living in relief camps. The villages where IDP camps were established were Bhairamgarh, Geedom, Bodli, Bangapal, Matwara, Jangla, Naimed, Kutru, Pharsegarh, Talnar, Gangalur, Nelsanar, Pinkonda, Kodoli, Karkeni, Bedare, Etamkudum, Cherpal, Bijapur, Murdandha, Aachapalli, Gangakud, Usur, Pharaspal, Konta, Arrabore, Dornapal, and Dantewada.

    ACHR team visited Bangapal IDP camp, Geedam IDP camp, Konta IDP camp and Errabore IDP camp and found the camp conditions deplorable. These camps had been turned into detention centres of the surrendered Naxalites as well as counter-insurgency training centres. The Government of Chhattisgarh claimed that there were about 1999 surrendered Naxalites who had been rehabilitated in the camps.[72] But ACHR team found many of them being kept in chains. They had no freedom of movement.

    The State Government officials claimed that they were providing free housing, free fooding, clothes, medical facilities, children's education, Anganwadi centres for preprimary education, adult education, business education and employment. It was as if the IDP camps had been turned into heaven for the impoverished Adivasis.

    The ACHR representatives however found the camp conditions to be deplorable and sub-human. The displaced persons were living in makeshift camps, some of which were covered just with leaves of trees as roofs, and open from all sides. The camp inmates alleged that during the rainy season, the socalled roofs could not prevent the water from pouring inside. Many were not provided tarpaulin-roofing. Only those who came to the relief camps earlier were lucky enough to get tarpaulin roofing.

    The IDPs remained extremely insecure with no access to their villages and means of survival.

    Prolong stay in the camps without any solution in sight had been taking toll on the mental health of the internally displaced persons.

    Hundreds of Adivasis, including women and children from Dantewada district also fled to Malkangiri district of Orissa.

    8. Violations of the rights of the child

    The State Government was responsible for recruitment of children as Special Police Officers (SPOs) to fight the Naxalites. During its field visit to Dantewada in March 2006, ACHR found instances of children being recruited as SPOs. Later, the Union Home Ministry reportedly issued directions not to recruit persons below 18 years as SPOs. However, the recruitment of children as SPOs continued. This was confirmed by National Commission for Women after its visit to Dantewada in December 2006. NCW stated that many of the tribal boys and girls who have been recruited as SPOs to fight Naxalites “appear to be minors”.[73]

    According to official figures, there were 4,048 SPOs, including 3,749 males and 299 females.[74]

     


    [1]. Chhattisgarh to amend anti-conversion law, The Sentinel, 4 August 2006 

    [2]. Law against witchcraft to check crimes, The Asian Age, 21 July 2005

    [3]. In Raipur, witch scare grips the superstitious, govt too, The Indian Express, 20 December 2006 

    [4]. Minors turning combatants in Salwa Judum camps, says NCW report, Indian Express, 21 December 2006 available at http://www.indianexpress.com/story/19040.html

    [5]. Court News, October - December 2006, Supreme Court of India

    [6]. Chhattisgarh Security Act Gets Presidential Assent, Indlaw.com, 13 March 2006, http://www.indlaw.com/c9d3b1a3b4f2a4e1901a3d31b9b6bd18

    [7]. "Naxal Conflict in 2006", Asian Centre for Human Rights, 10 January 2007 

    [8]. "Naxal Conflict in 2006", Asian Centre for Human Rights, 10 January 2007 

    [9]. Complaint to NHRC by Forum for Fact-finding Documentation and Advocacy, Raipur

    [10]. CPI demands probe into villagers deaths in Bastar, 11 June 2006, available at http://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/India/20060611/360376.html

    [11]. No villager killed in June 8 encounter: Police, 11 June 2006, http://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/India/20060611/360253.html

    [12]. Naxals kill seven villagers in Chhattisgarh, Times of India, 20 June 2006, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1664702.cms

    [13]. CHRC demands report in shooting incident, The Hitavada, 1 July 2006 

    [14]. Ruatala villagers agitate against alleged death in police custody, The Hitavada, 2 June 2006 

    [15]. Panda condemns custodial death, The Hitavada, 3 July 2006

    [16]. Court orders CBI inquiry into custodial death case, The Hitavada, 21 July 2006

    [17]. "The Adivasis of Chhattisgarh: Victims of the Naxalite movement and Salwa Judum campaign", Asian Centre for Human Rights, 17 March 2006 

    [18]. Maoist error kills 13, The Telegraph, 26 March 2006 

    [19]. Maoists apologise for killings, The Indian Express, 27 March 2006 

    [20]. Naxalites slit throats of 13 hostages in Chhattisgarh, The Hindustan Times, 29 April 2006 

    [21]. Naxal Conflict Monitor, Vol II (April-June 2006), Asian Centre for Human Rights, http://www.achrweb.org/ncm/ncm-vol-2.pdf

    [22]. Naxals kill two of nine abducted villagers, The Hitavada, 10 July 2006 

    [23]. Terror fodder, The Indian Express, 23 July 2006, http://www.indianexpress.com/sunday/story/9059.html

    [24]. Maoist army butchers 31, The Hindustan Times, 18 July 2006 

    [25]. Maoist army butchers 31, The Hindustan Times, 18 July 2006

    [26]. Naxals kill 6 more in Chhattisgarh, The Hindustan Times, 19 July 2006

    [27]. Maoists kill Salwa Judum activist, The Hitavada, 19 March 2006 

    [28]. 3 Salwa Judum activists shot dead, The Hitavada, 9 April 2006 

    [29]. Naxal kill Salwa Judum activist, The Hitavada, 20 April 2006 

    [30]. 2 kill in Bijapur as Maoists protest against Salwa judum, The Pioneer, 17 June 2006 

    [31]. Naxals kill two tribals in Dantewada distt, The Hitavada, Raipur, 14 September 2006

    [32]. Naxals kill VID tribal in C'garh, The Hitavada, Raipur, 21 September 2006

    [33]. Maoists kill one villager in Chhattisgarh, The Hitavada, 9 November 2006 

    [34]. Salwa Judum backer killed, The Hitavada, 29 November 2006 

    [35]. Chhattisgarh: Naxals kill 2 BJP leaders, Rediff.com, 31 March 2006, http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/mar/31naxal.htm

    [36]. Maoists murder senior Congress leader in C'garh, The Hitavada, 25 September 2006 

    [37]. Villagers turn to Naxals for justice, The Deccan Herald, 1 June 2006 

    [38]. Maoists 'sentence' sarpanch to death, The Hitavada, 14 June 2006 

    [39]. Naxalites kill cong leader after mock trial in Chhattisgarh, The Times of India, 5 July 2006 

    [40]. Rebels abduct 35 villagers, The Hitavada, 16 January 2006 

    [41]. Maoists kidnap six cops in Chhattisgarh, The Indian Express, 13 March 2006

    [42]. Abducted policemen released in Chhattisgarh, The Times of India, 13 March 2006 

    [43]. Maoists kidnap seven in Chhattisgarh, The Time of India, 6 June 2006 

    [44]. Rebels abduct 9 villagers, The Hitavada, 16 June 2006

    [45]. Naxals kill two of nine abducted villagers, The Hitavada, 10 July 2006 

    [46]. Naxals abduct 2 cops in C'garh, The Indian Express, 8 September 2006

    [47]. Maoists abduct 12 tribals, six freed, The Hitavada, 5 November 2006 

    [48]. Naxalites blast railway engine, abduct officials in Chhattisgarh, The Indian Express, 6 March 2006 

    [49]. Maoists attack PSU depot, kill 8 CISF men, Times of India, 11 February 2006 

    [50]. Maoist attack, The Telegraph, 23 March 2006 

    [51]. Maoists attack vital installations, The Hindu, 21 May 2006 

    [52]. Maoists raid ore leader, The Telegraph, 31 October 2006 

    [53]. Maoists attack vital installations, The Hindu, 21 May 2006

    [54]. Women Maoists blast Raipur govt buildings, The Hindustan Times, 18 October 2006, http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_1823568,000900030012.htm

    [55]. Naxals blow up 3 school buildings, The Hitavada, 30 October 2006 

    [56]. Law against witchcraft to check crimes, The Asian Age, 21 July 2005

    [57]. In Raipur, witch scare grips the superstitious, govt too, The Indian Express, 20 December 2006

    [58]. Naxal Conflict in 2006, Asian Centre for Human Rights, 10 January 2007

    [59]. Maoist couples prefer no child norm, The Kashmir Times, 12 April 2006 

    [60]. Maoists forcibly recruit, exploit tribal grils' The Hitavada, 21 June 2006 

    [61]. Woman Naxal narrates tale of terror, The Hitavada, 22 March 2006 

    [62]. Jail Department, Government of Chhattisgarh, available at http://jail.cg.gov.in/lockup.htm

    [63]. The number of inmates in District (Open) Jail, Masgoan is not available

    [64]. Jail Department, Government of Chhattisgarh, available at http://jail.cg.gov.in/lockup.htm

    [65]. Undertrial dies in judicial custody, The Hitavada, 7 November 2006

    [66]. Chhattisgarh Security Act Gets Presidential Assent, Indlaw.com, 13 March 2006, http://www.indlaw.com/c9d3b1a3b4f2a4e1901a3d31b9b6bd18

    [67]. The Adivasis of Chhatisgarh: Victims of the Naxalite movement and Salwa Judum campaign, Asian Centre for Human Rights, 17 March 2006

    [68]. A Hindsat correspondent beaten by Salwa Judum in India, International Federation of Journalists, 23 November 2006 

    [69]. IFJ concerned over harassment of journalist in Chattisgarh, International Federation of Journalists, 16 January 2006 

    [70]. Maoists abduct four photographers, The Hitavada, 8 March 2006 

    [71]. The Adivasis of Chhatisgarh: Victims of the Naxalite movement and Salwa Judum campaign, Asian Centre for Human Rights, 17 March 2006 

    [72]. Taking on Maoists proving an uphill task, The Pioneer, 29 October 2005

    [73]. Minors turning combatants in Salwa Judum camps, says NCW report, Indian Express, 21 December 2006 available at http://www.indianexpress.com/story/19040.html

    [74]. Naxal Conflict in 2006, Asian Centre for Human Rights, 10 January 2007 

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