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  • Orissa

    1. Overview. 1
    2. Human rights violations by the security forces 2
    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs 3
    4. Violence against women. 4
    5. Violations of the rights of the Dalits 5
    6. Violations of the rights of the indigenous/tribal peoples 6
    a. Atrocities 6
    b. Forcible displacement and alienation of land. 7
    7. Violations of the rights of the child. 8
    8. Violations of the prisoners' rights 9


    1. Overview

    Ruled by Biju Janata Dal, Orissa remained a highly lawless state with high incidence of atrocities against the Dalits and the Adivasis, the indigenous peoples. While the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) of the Government of India reported 2 deaths in police custody during 2005,[1] Asian Centre for Human Rights recorded three deaths in police custody during the same period. During 2004-2005, the NHRC had recorded 3 deaths in police custody.[2]

    The Maoists were also responsible for gross violations of the international humanitarian laws. The atrocities of the Maoists could be gauged from the fact that villagers of Jujomora area in Sambalpur district had to send their daughters and young brides away to undisclosed locations due to fear of abduction and killing by the Maoists.[3] The Orissa government stated that there were 133 Maoists in different jails of the state as on 30 November 2005.[4]

    Violence against women was high in Orissa. The National Crime Records Bureau reported 6,249 cases of violence against women, including 799 rape cases, 547 abduction cases, 334 dowry deaths, and 1,671 cases of cruelty by husband and relatives, among others in Orissa during 2005.[5] According to the Government of Orissa, 2,550 cases were registered relating to dowry and non-dowry torture in 2005.[6] Women were killed on the charges of being “witches”.

    The National Crime Records Bureau reported 86 cases of child abuse in Orissa during 2005, including 9 murder cases, 28 rape cases, and 16 kidnapping cases, among others.[7]

    Trafficking had been on the rise.

    The Dalits, who constituted 16.53% of the states' total population, were a neglected lot.  About 52.30% of the Dalits lived below the poverty line.[8] The National Crime Records Bureau reported 1,439 cases of crimes against the Dalits in Orissa during 2005.[9] Their houses were burnt and they were denied access to public places and services such as community tube well and temples. The Dalit women were specific target of violence and they were also denied jobs as cooks in schools under the mid-day meal scheme despite government directive for recruitment of women preferably from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for the scheme.[10]

    The tribals constituted 22.13% of the state's total population according to 2001 census. About 73.08% of the tribals lived below the poverty line. Their literacy rate was as low as 37.37%.[11] The National Crime Records Bureau reported 602 cases of atrocities against the tribal peoples in Orissa, which amount to 10.5% of the total cases of atrocities against the tribals in India during 2005.[12] The police also tortured tribals and filed false cases to arrest them on the charges of sheltering the Maoists.

    The State government of Orissa did not recognise the land rights of the tribals in the state, and suppressed any movement by tribals demanding such rights.[13] During 2002-2005, the Orissa government signed 42 Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) with companies for proposed steel and other plants in the state as a result of which thousands of tribals would be displaced.[14] About 1.4 million people, most of them tribals, had been reportedly displaced in Orissa between 1951 and 1995 due to dams, canals, mines and other industries. Majority of the displaced persons had not received compensation and rehabilitation.[15]

    A total of 14,365 prisoners including 438 females were in the prisons of Orissa as on 30 November 2005 against the actual capacity of 9,167.[16] The NHRC had recorded 39 deaths in judicial custody during 2004-2005.[17] In addition, 43 children below 5 years were living with their mothers in different jails.[18] But there were no proper facilities for these children. On 12 November 2005, one-year-old baby named Raimoti died in Burdwan sub-jail.[19]

    2. Human rights violations by the security forces

    The security forces were responsible for extrajudicial executions, arbitrary arrest, detention and torture. The National Crime Records Bureau reported 2 deaths in police custody during 2005.[20] The NHRC had recorded 3 deaths in police custody during 2004-2005.[21]

    Asian Centre for Human Rights recorded three deaths in police custody during 2005. On 3 March 2005, Dilip Kumar Sahoo alias Swain died in the custody of Shahid Nagar police station in Bhubaneswar after being arrested in connection with a snatching incident. The police claimed that he hanged himself from a railing by using his shirt.[22]  The other victims of custodial death were Gajendra Bag alias Majhia, a tribal who allegedly committed suicide with his lungi at Kuchinda police station in Sundergarh district on 17 March 2005,[23] and Manoj Mahapatra of Mahavir Bazar was allegedly beaten to death at the Town Police station in Dhenkanal district on 7 June 2005.[24]

    The police were responsible for indiscriminate use of force. On the night of 27 April 2005, a 70-year-old woman Gaji Muduli died following police assault during a raid by a police team on her house at Sorana village under Tangi police station limits in Khurda district. The victim was assaulted when she protested arrest of her husband Haribol Muduli. The Khurda district administration announced an ex gratia of Rs 10,000 to the victim's family, and a probe by Khurda Additional District Magistrate, Niranjan Das.[25]

    The police also resorted to indiscriminate use of fire-arms which led to the violations of the right to life. Dillip Mahanta was hit by a bullet on his head when the police opened fire to disperse a mob agitating in front of the Champua police station in Keonjhar on 8 June 2005 and died.[26]

    The police were responsible for arbitrary arrest, detention and torture. On 21 March 2005, Chief Minister Navin Patnaik stated in the State Assembly that the state crime branch had issued instructions to all the Superintendents of Police to strictly implement the guidelines of the Supreme Court in its judgment in the case of D K Basu versus State of West Bengal as well as the guidelines of National Human Rights Commission on custodial deaths in order to check custodial crimes.[27] But it had little impact.

    Bisikeshan, son of Partha Sunani of Chancharabhadi village reportedly died on 19 April 2005 after his release from Junagarh police station lock-up in Kalahandi district due to brutal assault by the Officer in-Charge Anirudhha Routray during illegal detention. Anirudhha Routray was suspended following public protests.[28] On 26 October 2005, plainclothes policemen arbitrarily arrested a tribal leader identified as Rabindra Jarika after a meeting in Bhubaneswar.[29]

    In a rarest case, on 30 July 2005 Bhubaneswar sub-divisional judicial magistrate Debashis Nayak sentenced two policemen - Somnath Dixit, Inspector-in-Charge of Lingaraj Police Station and assistant Sub-Inspector Narsingha Bala to six months of rigorous imprisonment for unlawfully confining Manmohan Mohanty of Basantpedi village in police custody for three days in 1998.[30]

    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs

    The Maoists were responsible for violations of the international humanitarian laws. On 11 August 2005, the Maoists attacked Jujomora area in Sambalpur district. Villagers were forced to send their daughters away to undisclosed locations due to fear of abduction and killing. Almost all the estimated 10,000 families of Chhamunda and Meghpal Gram Panchayats under Sambalpur district had sent their daughters and young women away due to fear of the Maoists.[31]

    The Maoists were responsible for killing of civilians either after accusing them of being police informers or inability to pay extortion or violating their dictat. The victims included businessman Abdul Sukru Khan who was shot dead in Rayagara town in Rayagara district on 28 March 2005;[32] three villagers - Kanhu Sahu, his son Dibakar and Ashwini Barik who were killed at Burda village under Jujumara police station limits in Sambalpur district on the night of 27 May 2005;[33] five villagers - Janam Majhi, Iswar Majhi, Desi Mirdha, Gurucharan Nayak and Surubaba Podha, a teacher of Lorabira primary school, who were killed after being accused of as police informers during a raid on Chamaprisingha, Banjaritika and Lorabira villages under Jujumara police station in Sambalpur district on the night of 6 July 2005;[34] and a contractor identified as Subhas Biswas who was killed at MV-88 village under Motu police station limits on the night of 29 September 2005.[35]

    The Maoists also resorted to abduction. On 9 February 2005, suspected Maoists abducted 23 labourers from Phulkusuma and Podanala villages in Sambalpur district. While four labourers were released on the same day,[36] 14 others were released on 12 February 2005.[37] On 18 May 2005, suspected Maoist rebels kidnapped the sarpanch of Chhamunda gram panchayat Ram Bhoi and two contractors, Rajeev and Bindhani from their houses from Gobardhan Badmal village under the Jujumara police station of Sambalpur district.[38]

    4. Violence against women

    According to the State government of Orissa, 2,550 cases were registered relating to dowry and non-dowry torture in 2005. Of these, charge-sheets were filed in 1,247 cases, final report submitted in 7 cases, 27 cases turned out Mistake of Fact/Mistake of Law, 6 turned out to be non-cognizable and 18 false. The remaining 1,245 cases were pending for investigation.[39]

    Women were victims of sexual violence. On the night of 9 January 2005, Circle Inspector of Nandapur in Orissa S K Odu, a local youth and a doctor P K Rath of Nandapur Community Health Centre allegedly gang raped a 30-year-old tribal woman at the official residence of the Circle Inspector after luring her into the house by promising a job.

    Inspector SK Odu and the youth identified as Nageswar Rao were arrested on 12 January 2005.[40]

    On 16 April 2005, the Sarpanch of Shyamsundar gram panchayat, Mr Fakir Charan Behera allegedly molested two women ward members of the panchayat during a palli sabha meeting for leveling of some corruption charges against him near Purussottampur village in Kendrapara. An FIR was lodged on 19 April 2005 a case under Section 354 of the Indian Penal Code against the sarpanch.[41]

    Women were also subjected to torture and degrading treatment. On 15 July 2005, Annapuma of Ghadimala village under Rajnagar block in Kendrapra district was reportedly paraded naked and beaten up in full public view by the villagers on the behest of her husband Arun for suspecting her of having an illicit relationship with another man of the village. She was rescued by the police the next day and admitted to Rajnagar Hospital after her father lodged an FIR at the Rajnagar police station.[42]

    Killing of women on the charges of being “witches” was prevalent in most of the districts of Orissa. At least 50 such deaths were recorded in Sundhargarh district since 2001, while in Ganjam district 34 suspected witches were killed since 2001[43] and Mayurbhanj district recorded 15 deaths since 2003.[44] Twenty-three people were arrested in connection with these murders.[45]

    The victims included a 70-year-old Jayanti Chatar of Belabahali village under Tomka police station limits in Jajpur district, who was killed on 17 November 2005,[46] and Muni Bandra, Jhala Bhengra and Rani Birua who were brought out of their homes and beaten up on the suspicion of being witches at Uttam Basti on the outskirts of Rourkela in December 2005.[47]

    5. Violations of the rights of the Dalits

    The Dalits (60,82,063) constituted 16.53% of the states' total population (3,68,04,660), according to 2001 census. About 52.30 % of the Dalits lived below the poverty line. Their literacy rate was only 55.53%.[48]

    During 2005, the National Crime Records Bureau recorded 1,439 cases of crimes against the Dalits in Orissa.[49] In June 2005, a Dalit youth identified as Sukanta Mallick of Badiha village in Kendrapara district was killed by the brothers of an upper caste girl for falling in love with her. Police investigation reportedly found prima facie evidence of murder, as there were marks of strangulation and other injuries on the body.[50]

    Dalit properties were targeted. On 25 April 2005, the upper caste people of Kurumpada destroyed at least 10 houses belonging to the Dalits at Bhoi Sahi in Narangada village in Khurda district in a caste-related violence.[51]

    Dalit women were often subjected to torture, inhuman and degrading treatment. On 19 September 2005, a group of Dalit women belonging to the barber community were reportedly dragged out of their houses and paraded naked on the streets by upper-caste Khandayat community in Bhubanpati village in Puri district. The women had been punished as their husbands refused to wash the feet of a bridegroom and other members of the barati during an upper-caste marriage held in July 2005.[52]

    The Dalits were not allowed to have access to public places and services such as community tube wells and temples. On 14 November 2005, over hundred Dalits belonging to washermen community were denied the right to draw water from government-dug community tube well by the panchayat representatives of Kandarpur village in Mangalpur Gram Panchayat (village council) under Derabish block in Kendrapara district. An FIR was lodged with Kendrapara police station.[53]

    In December 2005, four Dalits women identified as Sebati Muduli, Annapurna Mahali, Jharana Jena and Sakuntala Muduli were reportedly beaten up by the upper caste villager for daring to enter the Jagannath temple in Keraragard village in Kendrapara district. Later, the village panchayat imposed a fine of Rs 1,001 on them for temple-purification rituals.[54] The district administration ordered the Tehsildar to conduct an inquiry into the matter.[55]

    In Kendrapara district, Dalit women applying for the job of cooks in schools under the mid-day meal scheme were allegedly turned away by the school authorities for the fear that upper caste students might not take the food cooked by Dalits. This was in contrary to the government directive for recruitment of women preferably from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for the scheme[56] in about 1,420 primary schools in the district.

    The National Human Rights Commission in December 2005 issued a notice to the district administration for not appointing Dalit women as cooks in schools.[57]

    6. Violations of the rights of the indigenous/tribal peoples

    The indigenous peoples, the Scheduled Tribes, (81,45,081) constituted 22.13 %  of the state's total population (3,68,04,660) according to 2001 census. About 73.08 % of them lived below the poverty line. Their literacy rate was only 37.37%.[58]

    a. Atrocities

    The National Crime Records Bureau recorded 602 cases of atrocities against the tribals in Orissa, which amounted to 10.5 % of the total cases of atrocities against the tribals in India during 2005.[59]

    Tribals who lived in forest areas were often targeted for allegedly sheltering the Maoists. On 7 April 2005, around 100 grey hound personnel from Andhra Pradesh along with CRPF personnel entered the Pedaguda village near Ramnaguda in Rayagada district and threatened and beat several tribals including Dasuru Patika, Bidika Kusia, Patika Indica and a 65-year-old-woman, Droupadi Bidika, on the charge of sheltering the Maoists.[60]

    On 11 March 2005, in a high-level meeting presided over by Chief Minister Navin Patnaik, the state government claimed that a total 2531 cases against the tribals in the Naxal-affected districts of the state had been withdrawn, and 1183.40 acres of land were returned to the tribals.[61] However, the claim of the government was challenged by state convenor of Daman Pratirodh Manch, Mr Dandapani Mohanty and his counterpart in Jana Pratirodh Manch, Mr Barada Thatoi. They stated that not a single police case had been revoked and only five out of 18 persons who were arrested on their way back from the Maoist rally on 14 September 2004 were released after three months. 13 others were put behind the bars, out of whom, nine were girls in the age group of 15-25 years. Around 170 persons were languishing in Malkangiri jail alone, who had been arrested as suspected Maoists.[62] The Orissa government stated that there were 133 Maoists in different jails of the state as on 30 November 2005.[63]

    The tribal girls were subjected to rape and other violence. On 24 March 2005, the Orissa government ordered a departmental inquiry into the alleged torture and sexual abuse of tribal migrant labourers from Sundargarh and Bhadrak district in a brick kiln of Patkura area in Kendrapara district. Several tribal women were found to have been sexually abused and male workers were beaten up by the brick kiln management during their over three months' stay in the brick manufacturing unit. They had faced the wrath of the brick owner because they dared to ask for settlement of the unpaid dues. Acting on the complaint by one of the abused workers who had fled from the spot, police rescued 14 labourers and arrested five persons.[64]

    Instead of taking action against the rape of a minor tribal girl from Noto village in Mayurbhanj district by four men including one Shatrugan, the police arrested two NGO activists, who organized a fund-raising campaign for the victim, on charges of instigating communal violence and attempt to murder.[65]

    b. Forcible displacement and alienation of land

    About 1.4 million people, most of them tribals, had been reportedly displaced in Orissa between 1951 and 1995 due to dams, canals, mines and other industries. Majority of the displaced persons had not received compensation and rehabilitation. Another 80,000 to 1,00,000 tribals from 50 villages in Subdega and Balisankra blocks in Jharsuguda district of Orissa faced imminent displacement due to the proposed dam on the Ib river.[66]

    During 2002-2005, the Orissa government signed 42 Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) with companies for proposed steel and other plants in the state which would displace thousands of tribals.[67] The MoU with Korean steel major Pohang Steel Company (Posco) signed on 22 June 2005 for setting up a steel plant at Paradeep in Jagatsinghpur district in Orissa with a total investment of $12 billion would displace around 4,000 tribal families.[68]

    The alienation of the lands of the tribals in violation of the Orissa Scheduled Areas Transfer of Immovable Property (by Scheduled Tribe) Regulations continued unabated. The State government of Orissa suppressed the movement of the tribals for land rights.[69]

    On 9 May 2005, four tribals including two children were killed in police lathicharge while protesting against non-payment of dues for land acquired for the construction of Steel Plants and delay in rehabilitation by the State Government in Kalinganagar in Jajpur district. As a result of brutal beating, some tribals were reportedly rendered into paralysis due to breaking of backbones. The police also arrested 26 people, 25 of them women, some included newly married and in advance stage of pregnancy. The state government had sold land at Rs 3.50 lakhs per acre to various steel companies coming to Kalinganagar area, while it had paid only Rs 37,000 to the evicted persons.[70] In July 2005, the National Human Rights Commission taking suo-motu cognisance of a news report sent a special rapporteur A B Tripathy to inquire into the matter.[71]

    On 2 February 2005, at a meeting with Chief Secretary Subas Pani, the Parliamentary Affairs Committee on environment asked the state government to displace 65 tribal villages from within the Similipal National Park in Mayurbhanj district, and rehabilitate them elsewhere in the district.[72]

    The tribal areas in Orissa remained inaccessible. About 84 inaccessible pockets had Anganwadi centres as on June 2005. UNDP had been supporting Rs 430 crore tribal livelihood project in all the 30 districts of the state.[73] In 2003, the World Bank had sanctioned Rs 430 crore to the State government to implement the tribal livelihood projects in the tribal-majority districts of the state. However, the Orissa government had spent only Rs 2.21 crore out of a total World Bank aid of Rs 430 crore on the 10-year tribal development project in two years as on August 2005.[74]

    The tribals suffered from malnutrition related diseases especially during the rainy season.[75] Reports of child sale due to abject poverty were reported from the state. In March 2005, a tribal woman Sabita Munda sold her newborn son for a mere Rs 400 in Sundergarh district. Deserted by her husband, the 30-year-old tribal woman was struggling to make ends meet.[76]

    7. Violations of the rights of the child

    The National Crime Records Bureau reported 86 cases of child abuse in Orissa during 2005, including 9 murder cases, 28 rape cases and 16 kidnapping cases.[77]

    Juveniles were subjected to torture. On 27 May 2005, the police detained Jagannath Bag(12) for interrogation on charges of stealing Rs 3,000 from the house of Umakanta Pradhan, where his mother Diptirani Bag worked. When the boy denied his involvement, the police squeezed his right palm with a pincher and even applied electric shock on his private parts to extract a confession. Under duress the boy named his friend Shankar Harijan (8), who was later arrested by the police. When Shankar Harijan expressed ignorance, police allegedly applied electric shock to his private parts as well and made him kneel-down on the varandah of the police station. Jagannath Bag had to be admitted to Muniguda Project Hospital on 28 May 2005 in a critical condition.[78]

    There were also reports of sexual assault. On 13 July 2005, a 5-year old minor girl, daughter of a daily wage labourer, was reportedly raped by one Manguli Oram, inside the Vishwa Hindu Parishad's office premises near College Square under Malgodown police station while she was playing inside the premises. The girl was later sent to the SCB Medical College and Hospital for medical examination.[79]

    Trafficking was rampant in Orissa. A study conducted by the Bhubaneswar-based Institute of Socio-Economic Development in collaboration with United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) revealed that the holy place of Puri remained the main destination of victims of trafficking with 43.83 per cent, followed by capital city of Bhubaneswar with 30 per cent. The study covered 13 out of the State's 30 districts and identified 559 cases of trafficking from 275 villages in 83 blocks under 21 districts. These districts include the coastal ones of Ganjam, Puri, Khurda, Kendrapara, Jagatsinghpur, Cuttack, Jajpur, Bhadrak and Balasore and the districts bordering other States-Koraput, Rayagada, Nuapada and Mayurbhanj with industrial and mining towns, tourist spots and large urban centres. The study further revealed that sex work was the primary means of survival for most of the victims within the age group of 18 to 35 years. The reasons behind falling victim to trafficking were poverty, lure of employment, promise of marriage, betrayal of lovers and domestic violence. About 49 per cent of the victims were brought through promise of marriage, while nearly 11 per cent of them fall victims to poverty and 7 per cent were lured by promise of employment. Of the victims of trafficking 69.08 per cent in the state were illiterate. Muslim women, accounting to 3 per cent of the victims, were all illiterate.[80]

    8. Violations of the prisoners' rights

    According to the Orissa Home Department, the total capacity in the 70 jails in the state was 9,167 including 8,577 males and 590 females. But there were 14,365 prisoners including 13,927 males and 438 females as on November 2005. Another 43 children below 5 years were living with their mothers.[81]

    The NHRC had recorded 39 deaths in judicial custody during 2004-2005.[82]  Those who were killed in judicial custody in 2005 included an under trial prisoner Parameswar Das of Balasore jail who died on 10 August 2005,[83] Sankar Patra, an under-trial prisoner of Balasore jail who died on 15 November 2005,[84] and one-year-old baby named Raimoti in Burdwan sub-jail on 12 November 2005.[85]

    In March 2005, about 90 inmates of Alipingal subjail in Orissa's Jagatsinghpur district launched an indefinite hunger strike demanding transfer of the jail superintendent. The prisoners leveled several allegations including poor quality food, lack of proper drinking water, overcrowdedness,[86] collection of bribe money to facilitate visits of relatives and irregular medical attention. The Inspector General (prisons) ordered an inquiry by a circle superintendent of jail.[87]

    Prisoners continued to be illegally detained in the jails even after acquittal by the court. In September 2005, the Orissa High Court after hearing a petition filed by human rights activist Prabir Kumar Das asked the state government to submit details of the alleged illegal detention of tribal youth Pratap Naik in prison for nearly eight years after his acquittal. The victim, a resident of Ghimuhani village under Puruna Katak police station in Boudh district, was a minor (aged 14) when he was first sent to jails for a murder case by the Phulbani district and session's judge court. He was acquitted by the High Court in October 1994 but was released from jail only on 22 January 2003. The victim's mental health deteriorated due to long confinement and was reportedly undergoing psychiatric treatment in VSS Medical College in Burla.[88]



    [1]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau

    [2]. 2004-2005 Annual Report of NHRC of India

    [3]. Naxal terror: Orissa village womanless, The Hindu, 11 August 2005

    [4]. Orissa Home Department's Annual Activities Report 2005-2006, Prison Administration, http://orissagov.nic.in/homedept/activities/prison.htm

    [5]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau

    [6]. Orissa Home Department's Annual Activities Report 2005-2006, Human Rights Protection, http://orissagov.nic.in/homedept/activities/human_rights.htm

    [7]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau

    [8]. http://orissagov.nic.in/stsc/Activities-Report%202005-06.pdf

    [9]. 2005 Annual Report of the National Crime Records Bureau

    [10]. Caste tag keeps Dalit women away from school kitchens, The Pioneer, 11 January 2005

    [11]. http://orissagov.nic.in/stsc/Activities-Report%202005-06.pdf

    [12]. 2005 Annual Report of the National Crime Records Bureau

    [13]. State pulse - Orissa: Tribals losing land rights, The Central Chronicle, 10 February 2006 

    [14]. http://orissagov.nic.in/e-magazine/orissaannualreference/ORA-2005/pdf/mou_signed_with_companies.pdf

    [15].  “Development not for tribes” by Joseph Marianus Kujur, Open-Ed, The Pioneer, 18 June 2005

    [16]. Orissa Home Department's Annual Activities Report 2005-2006, Prison Administration, http://orissagov.nic.in/homedept/activities/prison.htm

    [17]. 2004-2005 Annual Report of NHRC

    [18]. Orissa Home Department's Annual Activities Report 2005-2006, Prison Administration, http://orissagov.nic.in/homedept/activities/prison.htm

    [19]. Baby dies in Burdwan sub-jail, The Statesman, 14 November 2005

    [20]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Burau

    [21]. 2004-2005 Annual Report of NHRC

    [22]. Custodial death sparks off controversy, The Pioneer, 4 March 2005

    [23]. Another custody death rocks Patnaik Govt as mob vents ire, The Pioneer, 19 March 2005

    [24]. Man dies of police excess, The Pragativadi, 9 June 2005

    [25]. Woman's death sparks off tension, The Pragativadi, 30 April 2005

    [26]. Police fire on mob, one killed, The Statesman, 9 June 2005

    [27]. Check on custodial crimes, The Statesman, 22 March 2005

    [28]. Junagarh lock-up death: OIC placed under suspension, The Pragativadi, 21 April 2005

    [29]. Tribal leader's arrest: PUCL moves OHRC, The Pragativadi, 28 October 2005

    [30]. Orissa court convicts 2 policemen, The Deccan Chronicle, 1 August 2005

    [31]. Naxal terror: Orissa village womanless, The Hindu, 11 August 2005

    [32]. Maoists kill businessman in Orissa, The Deccan Herald, 30 March 2005

    [33]. Naxals wreak havoc in Western Orissa; gun down three in Sambalpur district, The Pragativadi, 30 May 2005

    [34]. Five hacked to death by naxals in Orissa villages, The Deccan Herald, 8 July 2005

    [35]. Naxals gun down contractor, The Pragativad, 30 September 2005

    [36]. 19 labourers abducted in Orissa, The Central Chronicle, 10 February 2005

    [37]. MCC ultras set free 14 labourers, The Pragativadi, 14 February 2005

    [38]. Kidnap three in Orissa, The Pioneer, 19 May 2005

    [39]. Orissa Home Department's Annual Activities Report 2005-2006, Human Rights Protection, http://orissagov.nic.in/homedept/activities/human_rights.htm

    [40]. Cop held for raping tribal woman, The Pragativadi, 14 January 2005

    [41]. Sarpanch ‘molests' 2 women, The Statesman, 20 April 2005

    [42]. Woman paraded naked, The Deccan Chronicle, 18 July 2005

    [43]. Murder cases of suspect witches on the rise, The Free Press Journal, 10 January 2005

    [44]. Witch-hunting bane of tribal women, The Pioneer, 30 December 2005

    [45]. Murder cases of suspect witches on the rise, The Free Press Journal, 10 January 2005

    [46]. Tribal woman hacked to death, The Statesman, 19 November 2005

    [47]. Witch-hunting bane of tribal women, The Pioneer, 30 December 2005

    [48]. http://orissagov.nic.in/stsc/Activities-Report%202005-06.pdf

    [49]. 2005 Annual Report of the National Crime Records Bureau

    [50]. Dalit youth killed for falling in love with high caste girl, The Free Press Journal, 23 June 2005

    [51]. 10 hurt in caste violence, The Pragativadi, 27 April 2005

    [52]. Dalit women paraded naked in Orissa, The Deccan Herald, 24 September 2005

    [53]. Dalits denied right to draw water, The Statesman, 18 November 2005

    [54]. Dalit women pay for temple entry, The Hindustan Times, 15 December 2005

    [55]. Atrocity on Dalits: Tehsildar submits inquiry report, The Pioneer, 16 December 2005

    [56]. Caste tag keeps Dalit women away from school kitchens, The Pioneer, 11 January 2005

    [57]. Rights panel sends notice on dalit issue, The Asian Age, 27 December 2005

    [58]. http://orissagov.nic.in/stsc/Activities-Report%202005-06.pdf

    [59]. 2005 Annual Report of the National Crime Records Bureau

    [60]. Andhra police terrorising tribals: Naxal outfits, The Statesman, 19 April 2005

    [61]. Govt withdraws 2531 cases against tribals, The Pragativadi, 12 March 2005

    [62]. Naxalite bodies demand probe into police firing, The Statesman, 14 March 2005

    [63]. Orissa Home Department's Annual Activities Report 2005-2006, Prison Administration, http://orissagov.nic.in/homedept/activities/prison.htm

    [64]. State orders probe into Patkura brick-kiln torture Case, The Statesman, 25 March 2005

    [65]. Rape victim alleges harassment by police, The Hitavada, 8 May 2005

    [66].  “Development not for tribes” by Joseph Marianus Kujur, Open-Ed, The Pioneer, 18 June 2005

    [67]. http://orissagov.nic.in/e-magazine/orissaannualreference/ORA-2005/pdf/mou_signed_with_companies.pdf

    [68]. All about India's biggest FDI project, 23 August 2005, http://www.rediff.com/money/2005/aug/23posco.htm

    [69]. State pulse - Orissa: Tribals losing land rights, The Central Chronicle, 10 February 2006 

    [70]. Lathicharge on tribals kills babies, too, The Asian Age, 17 May 2005

    [71]. NHRC starts probe into police violence on tribals, The Asian Age, 11 July 2005

    [72]. Displace 65 villages from within Similipal Park: PAC to govt, The Pragativadi, 4 February 2005

    [73]. UN team to oversee tribal livelihood project, The Pragativadi, 29 April 2005

    [74]. Tribal development scheme in Orissa remains a non-starter, The Pragativadi, 22 August 2005

    [75]. Special teams to check malnutrition, The Statesman, 5 July 2005

    [76]. Tribal woman sells child for Rs 400, The Pioneer, 26 March 2005

    [77]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau

    [78]. Inhuman police excess on two children comes to fore, The Pragativadi, 31 May 2005

    [79]. Minor raped inside VHP office premises, The Pragativadi, 15 July 2005

    [80]. Puri, Bhubaneswar lead in women trafficking, The Pioneer, 16 June 2005

    [81]. Orissa Home Department's Annual Activities Report 2005-2006, Prison Administration, http://orissagov.nic.in/homedept/activities/prison.htm

    [82]. 2004-2005 Annual Report of NHRC

    [83]. UTP dies in jail, The Pragativadi, 12 August 2005

    [84]. Tension in Balasore jail after inmate's death, The Statesman, 17 November 2005

    [85]. Baby dies in Burdwan sub-jail, The Statesman, 14 November 2005

    [86]. Jail inmates in Orissa on hungerstrike, The Asian Age, 7 March 2005

    [87]. IG orders inquiry into jail bungling, The Statesman, 9 March 2005

    [88]. Orissa HC pulls up govt for boy's 8 - yr overstay in jail, The Times of India, 24 September 2005

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