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  • Jammu and Kashmir

    1. Overview. 1
    2. Human rights violations by the security forces 2
    a. Deprivation of the right to life. 2
    b. Arbitrary arrest, illegal detention and torture. 4
    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs 5
    a. Deprivations of the right to life. 5
    b. Torture. 6
    4. Violence against women. 6
    5. Violations of the rights of the child. 7
    6. Violations of the prisoners' rights 7
    7. Status of the Internally Displaced Persons 8
    8. Application of the national security laws 8


    1. Overview

    Ruled by the People's Democratic Party (PDP) and the Indian National Congress alliance, Jammu and Kashmir continued to be afflicted by insurgency and violence. Human rights violations both by the security forces and the armed opposition groups (AOGs) continued to be extensively reported from the state. About 15,320 civilians had lost their lives in militancy-related violence in the state as of March 2005.[1] According to the State government of Jammu and Kashmir, the armed opposition groups killed 504 civilians in 2003 and 479 civilians in 2004.[2]

    On 17 January 2005, the Government of India announced setting up of a three-member committee to hold talks with political parties in Jammu and Kashmir on the autonomy question.[3] Despite holding various parleys, little progress was made.

    The NHRC had failed to record any case of deprivation of the right to life by the security forces whether in custody or in encounter during 2004-2005.[4] This is despite the fact that Asian Centre for Human Rights reported several instances of alleged extrajudicial killings of civilians by the security forces during 2004 in its “India Human Rights Report 2005”. On 16 August 2005, Union Minister of State for Home, Sriprakash Jaiswal stated before the Lok Sabha that seven innocent persons were mistakenly killed by the security forces in the state between January and July 2005.[5]

    On 27 September 2005, Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Mufti Mohammad Sayeed stated that 131 army personnel, 68 BSF personnel and 17 police personnel had been punished for violation of human rights during the past 15 years. Of the 131 army personnel, two were awarded life imprisonment, 59 rigorous imprisonments, 11 dismissed from service with one year's imprisonment, four others dismissed and 55 awarded other punishments.[6] But the details of the personnel were not made public.

    The armed opposition groups like Save Kashmir Movement, Harket-i-Jehad Islami Tehreek-Jehadi Islami, Laskar-e-Toiba, Hizbul-Mujahideen etc were responsible for blatant violations of international humanitarian laws by resorting to medieval forms of torture, kidnapping and killing. On 31 January 2005, four members of a family identified as Naseema Begum, wife of Abdul Aziz, their daughters Rehana Banoo (5) and Razia Banoo (10), son Sabha Ahmed (15) were killed at Nashala Bijarani village about six kilometers from Doda town on 31 January 2005.[7]

    Women in Jammu and Kashmir remained extremely vulnerable. As many as 1,099 women were reportedly killed in the state from 1991 till August 2005.[8]

    More than 90 % of the Hindu population in the Kashmir Valley or 55,476 Kashmiri Pandit families remained internally displaced due to the armed conflict in the state.[9] The Government of India and the State government of Jammu and Kashmir sought to take steps to facilitate return of the Kashmiri migrants but the Kashmiri Pandits remained skeptic over their return due to security concerns.[10]

    One of the primary violations of the prisoners' rights was alleged deliberate attempt on the part of the jail authorities to prolong the trials of the prisoners, especially if they were arrested in militancy related incidents. On 6 September 2005, the Union Home Ministry initiated the process of reviewing all cases of those detained under Public Safety Act and now-defunct Prevention of Terrorist Activity Act (POTA) in Jammu and Kashmir.[11]

    2. Human rights violations by the security forces

    a. Deprivation of the right to life

    The NHRC had failed to record any case of deprivation of the right to life by the security forces whether in custody or in encounter during 2004-2005[12]. This was despite the fact that Asian Centre for Human Rights reported several extrajudicial killings of civilians by the security forces during 2004 in its “India Human Rights Report 2005”. 

    The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) of the Government of India reported only one death in police custody in the state during 2005.[13] The NCRB does not record human rights abuses by the army and the paramilitary forces.

    During 2005, the security forces in Jammu and Kashmir were responsible for serious human rights violations including extrajudicial executions, torture, rape, etc. On 16 August 2005, Union Minister of State for Home, Sriprakash Jaiswal stated before the Lok Sabha that seven innocent persons were mistakenly killed by the security forces in the state between January and July 2005.[14] However, the number could be much higher. Asian Centre for Human Rights documented killings of at least 22 civilians in alleged encounters by the security forces in the state during 2005. In a clear case of extrajudicial killings, an ambush party of Rashtriya Rifles shot dead three boys identified as Bilal Ahmed Sheikh, Wasim Ahmed Wani and Manzoor Ahmed Shah and injured another identified as Shabir Ahmed after mistaking them as cadres of armed opposition groups at Bagargund village in Kupwara district on the night of 23 July 2005.[15] Admitting the crime, the army reportedly agreed to pay Rs 3 lakh each to the families of the deceased and Rs 2 lakh to the injured and ordered a court of inquiry.[16]

    The other victims of alleged extrajudicial executions included Zahoor Ahmad Bhat of Madina Colony Bemina who was killed by a patrolling party of Border Security Force near Magam on the Srinagar-Gulmarg road on 6 February 2005;[17] Mohammad Maqbool Malla of Sunni-Saidnar village who was killed by 30th Rashtriya Rifles personnel on 17 February 2005;[18] Mohammad Rafiq Ganie of Ahgam and Mukhtar Ahmad Bhat of Bandapa Dozinapora who were killed by 17th Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry personnel in Shardpora-Shopian on 27 February 2005 into which a judicial enquiry was ordered;[19] four persons, including Feroz Ahmad and Mohammad who were killed at Uri in April 2005;[20] three members of a family identified as Abdul Rafiq, his wife Zohra Begum and son Riaz Ahmed who were killed by 4th Bn BSF personnel at Seri Para in Gool area of Udhampur district on 6 June 2005 into which an inquiry was ordered by the BSF authorities;[21] Parvez Ahmad Dar who was killed by Rashtriya Rifles personnel at Check-Kangan in Pulwama district on 22 July 2005;[22] Mohammad Hanief, son of Abdul Aziz, who was killed by 5th Rashtriya Rifles personnel at Thanamang village in Darhal area of Rajouri district on 15 September 2005;[23] Ghulam Nabi, son of Assad Ullah of Nohorch who was killed in Deolmarg village in Gool under Udhampur district on 21 September 2005;[24] two persons of a family - Kumhar and Noora who were killed at Nabog in Kralpora on 30 September 2005;[25] Nishu Sharma of Roop Nagar Colony who was shot dead at Domana Township on 28 October 2005;[26] Mohammad Ismail, son of Noor Mohammad who was shot dead by the Special Task Force personnel at Butanaki in Kither Patnaji area in Doda on 19 November 2005;[27] and Ghulam Ahmed Rather who was killed by a guard of an army major who got panic after the major's service rifle went off accidentally during a search operation at Nar Baba Reshi village in Tangmarg area on 5 December 2005.[28]

    In addition to the encounter killings, the security forces were also responsible for killing of civilians in their custody. The victims included Abdul Gani Dar who was allegedly tortured to death by Special Operation Group personnel at Magam police station in Budgam district on 19 January 2005;[29] Sajad Ahmed Budroo, an autorickshaw driver, who was allegedly killed in custody of Rashtriya Rifles and police in Dooru Anantnag on the night of 27 October 2005;[30] and Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat, son of Ghulam Qadir Bhat of Baboor district Doda who was allegedly killed in custody of the police in Doda on 17 August 2005.[31] Magisterial inquiries were ordered into all the above three cases of custodial deaths.

    On 12 February 2005, Noor-u-Din Wangnoo, son of Abdul Rehman from Gasi Mohalla-safakadal in south Kashmir, reportedly disappeared after his arrest by the security forces.[32]

    b. Arbitrary arrest, illegal detention and torture

    The security forces were responsible for arbitrary arrest and detention. On 16 December 2005, the Jammu and Kashmir High Court ordered for immediate release of two persons - Ghulam Hassan Lone, son of Abdul Ghaffar Lone of Gulgam-Kupwara and Sajad Ahmad Dar, son of Abdul Rahim Dar of Beerwah-Budgam, who were undergoing detention under the Public Safety Act.[33]

    Torture during detention was a common practice. On the night of 23 January 2005, Mohammad Lateef Mir of Lassipora was subjected to torture including lying naked at the security forces camp at Bonora in Pulwama after being arrested by security forces. He was released in a serious condition on the morning of 24 January 2005.[34] In another case of custodial torture, in October 2005, personnel of 22nd Rajputana Rifles reportedly arrested Abdul Rashid of Yamberzal locality in Sopore while grazing cattle. He was allegedly subjected to third degree torture and later released in a serious condition.[35]

    The other victims of torture included Javed Ahmad who was grievously beaten up by two police constables in civvies identified as Mohammad Ashraf Mir and Farooq Ahmad Malla at the Nehru Park in Srinagar on 8 May 2005,[36] Showkat Ahmad Shalla who was beaten up by police near the government Women's College, Nawa Kadal on 27 June 2005;[37] Manzoor Ahmad Sada, Imam of Malapora Masjid, his mother Saja Begam and a sister were beaten up by the personnel of Rashtriya Rifles at their house at Sadi Mohalla in Baramulla district on 8 November 2005.[38]

    The security personnel used disproportionate force to control public protests. On 28 February 2005, at least 35 persons including some women and children were injured when police reportedly cane-charged stranded Srinagar bound passengers at Government Higher Secondary School Satwari.[39] On 9 June 2005, several civilian were injured, one seriously, after security forces opened fire during a protest demonstration in Ahmadnagar under Soura police station.[40] On 6 November 2005, around 20 persons including some women were reportedly injured, one critically, when police twice resorted to cane-charge and fired around 30 teargas shells to disperse an agitating mob on Toph Bridge on Akhnoor road.[41]

    Harassment and torture of civilians were common during search operations by the security forces. More than a dozen persons including women were injured, when 24th Rashtriya Rifles personnel allegedly roughed up locals and committed atrocities on women during a cordon and search operation at Thewan village in Kangan area on 12 March 2005. A magisterial probe was ordered into the incident.[42]

    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs

     

    a. Deprivations of the right to life

    According to the State government of Jammu and Kashmir, the armed opposition groups (AOGs) killed 504 civilians in 2003 and 479 civilians in 2004.[43]

    During 2005, the AOGs were also responsible for blatant violation of international humanitarian laws including arbitrary deprivation of the right to life. Several persons were killed by the alleged cadres of AOGs including Kanta Devi at Bagla Triath Village near Dharamsal in Rajouri district on the night of 27 January 2005;[44] four members of a family identified as Naseema Begum, wife of Abdul Aziz, their daughters Rehana Banoo (5) and Razia Banoo (10), son Sabha Ahmed (15) at Nashala Bijarani village about six kilometers from Doda town on 31 January 2005;[45] four members of a family including Gaffi, mother of Shabir, Shabir's wife Kali and their seven-day-old daughter at Hasote village of Budhal area in Rajouri district on the night of 26 March 2005;[46] Qamar Din, Roshan Din, Mohammed Shafi at Mahore area of Udhampur district on the night 13 April 2005;[47] and Imitiaz Ahmad Bakkerwal, son of Mohammad Iqbal, who was killed after abduction from his house at Beolian near Parakh in Udhampur district of Jammu on the night of 28 March 2005.[48]

    The armed opposition groups killed many people on alleged charges of being “police informers”. On the night of 11 January 2005, 75-year-old Abdul Aziz was shot dead at Bharneli village of Mahore tehsil of Udhampur district.[49] Again on 10 July 2005, armed cadres tortured and beheaded a tribal identified as Hukam Din on the charges of being a police informer at Bhulla village in Udhampur district.[50]

    Killings of political party workers and leaders by the armed opposition groups were also extensively reported from Jammu and Kashmir during 2005. On the morning of 18 October 2005, armed cadres shot dead J&K Minster of State for Education Dr Ghulam Nabi Lone in a fidayeen attack at his high security official residence at Tulsibagh in Srinagar. Terrorist outfit Al Masoorin has claimed responsibility for the attack.[51] Other political leaders and cadres killed by the AOGs included Haji Nund Wagay of National Conference who was killed after abduction on the night of 20 January 2005,[52] a National Conference candidate Ghulam Rasool at Pampore in Pulwama district on  the night of 28 January 2005,[53] Ghulam Nabi Ganai, a PDP block president, at Frisal Yaripora in Kulgam tehsil on 7 March 2005,[54] Congress councilor of Baramulla municipal council, Fayaz Ahmad Mehjoo alias Bita in Baramulla on 17 March 2005,[55] chairman of Pattan Municipal Committee Mohammad Ramzan Mian of the Congress at busy Pattan market in Baramulla district on 3 May 2005 by armed opposition group Al-Arifeen,[56] municipal corporator Mohammad Ashraf Bala of National Conference in Srinagar on 3 June 2005,[57] Ghulam Rasool Bhat, zonal president of People's Democratic Party at Warlar, Ganderbal by Harkat-ul-Mujhadeen on the night of 18 June 2005,[58] and CPM leader Ghulam Nabi Ganai who was shot dead outside a mosque at Seer-hamdan village in Anantnag district on 17 October 2005.[59]

    Killing of minorities

    Religious minorities of Jammu and Kashmir were specific targets of the AOGs. On 12 May 2005, the cadres of armed opposition groups threw a grenade into Tyndale Biscoe Memorial High School, a Christian missionary school at Lal Chowk, Srinagar killing two women guardians and injuring 50 others including 20 school children.[60]

    On 29 July 2005, cadres of armed opposition groups reportedly slit the throats of five Hindus identified as Karnail Singh, son of Tota Singh, Dharam Singh, s/o Rambo, Saran Singh, s/o Sheru, Ashok Kumar and Sahber Singh both sons of Mangal Singh, after dragging them out of their houses at Dhar Sankari in Rajouri district of Jammu and Kashmir.[61]

    Again on 10 October 2005, cadres of armed opposition groups reportedly slaughtered 10 Hindus of two families in the Budhal area of Rajouri district.[62] On 23 October 2005, seven Hindu families comprising of about 31 persons reportedly fled their hamlet in Rajouri district after militants threatened to kill them.[63]

    b. Torture

    The armed opposition groups were responsible for brutal torture. The armed opposition groups slit the throats of the victims and chopped off the tongues or other body parts to create chilling fear. On 14 August 2005, suspected members of Lashker-e-Toiba abducted and chopped off the tongue of Abdul Majeed of Sariliya-Sumi area of Gandoh tehsil in Doda district on the charges of being an informer of security forces.[64]

    4. Violence against women

    The NHRC recorded 2 cases of custodial rape in Jammu and Kashmir during 2004-2005.[65] The National Crime Records Bureau recorded 2,144 cases of violence against women, including 201 rape cases, 830 cases of molestation, 658 cases of abduction, 5 dowry deaths, etc. in the state during 2005.[66]

    Women were the main victims of the armed conflict. According to news agency CNS quoting police sources, as many as 1,099 women were killed in the state from 1991 till August 2005.[67] On 25 June 2005, Rubina Akthar, a lady teacher in an army school, was killed by alleged cadres of AOGs at Shrut Kulgam in Anantnag district.[68]

    The security forces were responsible for rape and sexual molestation.[69] In June 2005, Assistant sub-inspector Mohammed Maqbool posted in Kulgam police station was suspended on charges of attempting to molest a woman at the police station.[70] On 18 September 2005, a police head constable Abdul Haneif was charged with raping his minor house maid in Sowjain area.[71]

    The cadres of armed opposition groups also pepetrated serious atrocities. On 5 November 2005, a schoolgirl reportedly committed suicide after being gangraped by cadres of AOGs at her residence at Muradpur in Rajouri district.[72]

    5. Violations of the rights of the child

    The National Crime Records Bureau reported 57 cases of crime against children in the state, including 4 murder cases, 4 rape cases, 48 kidnapping cases, among others, during 2005.[73] 

    Children were the disproportionate victims of the armed conflict. According to the Iqbal Memorial Trust, about 40,000 children had been orphaned due to the conflict in the state. Most of them have been living in miserable conditions.[74] According to a study conducted by the Institute of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs, 57.3% of the children have become fearful, 55.3 % suffer from depression and 54.25% cannot sleep properly in Kashmir region. While in Jammu region, the corresponding figures were 51.17%, 25.98% and 41.17% respectively.[75]

    The security forces also allegedly used children as “human shields” during anti-insurgency operations. On 11 November 2005, security forces allegedly picked up eight boys and used them as “human shields” during an encounter in Shah Mohalla, Palhalan-Pattan in Baramulla district. While two of these boys identified as Shabir and Aijaz were killed in the gunbattle, the other six children escaped from custody.[76]

    The cadres of AOGs were also responsible for killing children. On 13 June 2005, 14 persons including three students were killed in a powerful car bomb blast by armed cadres outside the central secondary school on the Shopian road in Pulwama district.[77]

    6. Violations of the prisoners' rights

    One of the primary violations of the prisoners' rights was alleged deliberate attempt on the part of the jail authorities to prolong the trials of the prisoners, especially if they were arrested in militancy related incidents. According to the report of a two-member High Court Bar Association team led by its president Mian Qayoom which visited Central Jail in June 2005 stated that there were 456 detenues, including 156 detained for militancy related cases, 269 in other cases and 6 under Public Safety Act and 25 convicts. Those detained for militancy related cases and facing trials at various courts were not provided police escort on one or other pretext while taking to court for hearings in order to prolong their cases. Even those who were released were re-arrested under fresh fake charges. In June 2005 alone, about a dozen such detenues were re-arrested after being released. Besides, the jail lacked proper medicare facilities.[78]

    On 9 September 2005, a police party of Rainawari police station allegedly severely beat up and injured some prisoners, some seriously, in the premises of the central jail for observing hunger strike for not being allowed to attend the courts on time during trials.[79]

    7. Status of the Internally Displaced Persons

    More than 90% of the Hindu population in the Kashmir Valley, the Kashmiri Pandits, remained internally displaced due to the armed conflict in Jammu and Kashmir.[80] About 55,476 families had been displaced due to the conflicts in Jammu and Kashmir since 1990. Of them, 34,088 families had been living in Jammu, 19,338 families in Delhi and 2,050 families in other States and Union Territories. The government had been providing assistance to 14,869 families in Jammu and 4,100 families in Delhi. In Delhi, 230 migrant families were living in 14 camps, while 5,778 families were living in 16 camps in Jammu. The government provided cash relief of Rs. 3,000/- per family per month plus basic dry rations in Jammu. In Delhi, the government provided cash relief of Rs 3,200 to non-camp migrants and Rs 2,400 to those living in camps besides dry rations.[81]

    The Central government and the State government of Jammu and Kashmir sought to take steps to facilitate return of the Kashmiri migrants. According to the State Revenue and Rehabilitation Minister Hakim Mohammad Yaseen, 1,600 applications had been received from migrant families willing to return as of August 2005.[82] However, most of the Kashmiri Pandits remained skeptic over their return due to security concerns.[83]

    8. Application of the national security laws

    The security forces continued to enjoy widespread and arbitrary powers under the Public Safety Act (PSA), Disturbed Areas Act and Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA).

    While the PSA has been grossly misused for arbitrary detention, under the Disturbed Areas Act and the AFSPA, the security forces enjoyed extra-ordinary powers including opening fire, destroying property, etc.[84] On 6 October 2005, separatist Dukhtaran-e-Milat outfit leader Asiya Andrabi and 8 others were booked under the PSA.[85]

    As on 12 July 2005, there were 91 POTA cases in the state.[86] On 6 September 2005, the Union Home Ministry initiated the process of reviewing all cases of those detained under Public Safety Act and now-defunct Prevention of Terrorist Activity Act (POTA) in Jammu and Kashmir.[87] On 4 October 2005, the State government cleared the release of the 44 prisoners detained under the Public Safety Act.[88]



    [1]. Violence has 15320 civilian lives, The Kashmir Times, 25 March 2005

    [2]. http://jammukashmir.nic.in/normalcy/welcome.html

    [3]. Centre to set up panel on J&K autonomy, The Tribune, 18 January 2005 

    [4]. 2004-2005 Annual Report of NHRC of India

    [5]. Seven innocent people killed in J&K, The Kashmir Times, 17 August 2005

    [6]. 131 Army men, 68 BSF personnel punished for rights violations, The Tribune, 28 September 2005

    [7]. 4 of family shot dead, The Kashmir Times, 1 February 2005 

    [8]. 1099 women killed in J&K, The Kashmir Times, 8 September 2005

    [9]. India: Tens of thousands newly displaced in north-eastern and central states, IDMC, 9 February 2006

    [10]. Displaced Kashmiri Pandits - Dreams to go home but skepticism overpowers, The Kashmir Times, 4 June 2005

    [11]. Centre initiates review of detention in J&K, The Kashmir Times, 7 September 2005

    [12]. 2004-2005 Annual Report of NHRC of India

    [13]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau

    [14]. Seven innocent people killed in J&K, The Kashmir Times, 17 August 2005

    [15]. Security forces kill 3 children, The Hindu, 25 July 2005

    [16]. Army gives Rs 3 lakh to families of killed boys, The Statesman, 27 July 2005

    [17]. BSF's panic firing kills youth near Gulmarg, The Kashmir Times, 8 February 2005

    [18]. Protests in Rafiabad, Hadipora 70 yr old shot dead by security forces, The Kashmir Times, 18 February 2005

    [19]. Probe ordered into Shopian fake killings, The Kashmir Times, 4 March 2005

    [20]. Four allegedly killed in fake encounter, protests rock Valley, The Kashmir Times, 28 April 2005

    [21]. IG BSF orders probe into Gool killings, The Kashmir Times, 8 June 2005

    [22]. Killing of boy sparks protests, The Tribune, 23 July 2005

    [23]. Protest in Darhal over alleged killing - Jawan among 3 civilians killed in Doda, The Kashmir Times, 16 September 2005

    [24]. Civilian killed in Gulabgarh, The Kashmir Times, 22 September 2005

    [25]. JKLF condemns Kralpora killings, The Kashmir Times, 7 October 2005

    [26]. Police goes berserk, ‘kills' boy for jumping naka, The Tribune, 29 October 2005

    [27]. Protest in Doda against civilian's killing, The Kashmir Times, 23 November 2005

    [28]. Shot in panic kills civilian, The Telegraph, 6 December 2005

    [29]. Protest against ‘custodial killing' Kashmir Times, 21 January 2005

    [30]. In J-K, probe ordered into ‘custody' death of 26-yr-old, The Indian Express, 29 October 2005

    [31]. Probe into Doda custodial killing, The Kashmir Times, 4 September 2005

    [32]. Protest against drivers disappearance, The Kashmir Times, 16 February 2005

    [33]. HC orders release of PSA detenues, The Kashmir Times, 17 December 2005

    [34]. Civilian tortured in custody, hospitalized, The Kashmir Times, 25 January 2005

    [35]. Protest in Sopore against ‘torture' of youth, The Kashmir Times, 28 October 2005

    [36]. Two cops arrested, The Kashmir Times, 10 May 2005

    [37]. Protest against police action, The Kashmir Times, 28 June 2005

    [38]. Cop killed in Tral - Soldiers beat up Imam, family in Baramulla, The Kashmir Times, 10 November 2005

    [39]. Stranded passengers cane charged, The Kashmir Times, 1 March 2005

    [40]. Civilian injured in police firing, The Kashmir Times, 10 June 2005

    [41]. Top Sherkhania tense - 20 injured as police canecharge protestors, The Kashmir Times, 7 November 2005

    [42]. Violent protest in Kangan after army ‘allegedly' rough up locals - Dozen injured, magisterial probe ordered, The Kashmir Times, 13 March 2005

    [43]. http://jammukashmir.nic.in/normalcy/welcome.html

    [44]. Ultras kill woman, injure son in Sunderbani - People stage protest demonstrations, The Kashmir Times, 29 January 2005

    [45]. 4 of family shot dead, The Kashmir Times, 1 February 2005

    [46]. 3 of family including infant among 4 massacred in Rajouri, The Kashmir Times, 28 March 2005

    [47]. Militants kill 3 civilians in Mahore, The Kashmir Times, 15 April 2005

    [48]. Three ultras surrender Militants torture nomad to death, The Kashmir Times, 1 April 2005

    [49]. Ultra surrenders - Two civilians killed in Mahore, The Kashmir Times, 13 January 2005

    [50]. Ultras behead tribal in J&K, The Statesman, 11 July 2005

    [51]. Kashmir Minister shot dead, CPM leader has close shave, The Pioneer, 19 October 2005

    [52]. NC worker killed, PDP activist injured in Valley, The Kashmir Times, 22 January 2005

    [53]. NC candidate killed in J&K, The Deccan Chronicle, 30 January 2005

    [54]. PDP block president among 2 killed in Valley, The Kashmir Times, 9 March 2005

    [55]. Cong councillor shot dead in Baramulla, The Kashmir Times, 18 March 2005

    [56]. Congress councillor killed in Kashmir, The Hindu, 4 May 2005

    [57]. Corporator shot in J&K, The Telegraph, 4 June 2005

    [58]. PDP leader among 6 killed in Valley, The Kashmir Times, 20 June 2005

    [59]. Militants kill CPM leader, The Telegraph, 18 October 2005

    [60]. 2 dead, 50 hurt in school blast, The Times of India, 13 May 2005

    [61]. Militants slit throats of 5 Hindus, The Pioneer, 30 July 2005

    [62]. After quake, it's terror in Rajouri - Militants slit throats of 10 of community, The Tribune, 11 October 2005

    [63]. 31 Hindus flee village in Rajouri after threat, The Deccan Chronicle, 24 October 2005

    [64]. Militants chop off man's tongue, The Central Chronicle, 15 August 2005 

    [65]. 2004-2005 Annual Report of NHRC of India

    [66]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau

    [67]. 1099 women killed in J&K, The Kashmir Times, 8 September 2005

    [68]. Villagers allege rape by BSF men - Militants gun down army school teacher, The Kashmir Times, 26 June 2005

    [69]. Villagers allege rape by BSF men - Militants gun down army school teacher, The Kashmir Times, 26 June 2005

    [70]. ASI suspended on molestation charge, The Kashmir Times, 8 June 2005

    [71]. Cop charged with raping minor, The Central Chronicle, 19 September 2005

    [72]. Girl ends life after being gangraped by militants, The Hitavada, 7 November 2005

    [73]. 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau, Government of India

    [74]. Orphanage set up in Srinagar J&K has 40,000 orphans, The Tribune, 11 June 2005

    [75]. Impact of violence on children of J&K State-I, The Kashmir Times, 5 August 2005

    [76]. Panic stricken villagers give ultimatum to govt - Palhan-Pattan ‘human shield' case: survivor speaks, The Kashmir Times, 16 November 2005

    [77]. 14 killed, 60 hurt in Pulwama car bomb blast, The Kashmir Times, 14 June 2005

    [78]. Detenues involved in militancy cases given a raw deal, The Kashmir Times, 3 July 2005

    [79]. Kashmir Bar protests against beating up of jail inmates, The Kashmir Times, 11 September 2005

    [80]. India: Tens of thousands newly displaced in north-eastern and central states, IDMC, 9 February 2006

    [81]. Ministry of Home Affairs, Annual Report-2005-06, http://mha.nic.in/Annual-Reports/ar0506-Eng.pdf

    [82]. First migrants batch likely to return in October, The Kashmir Times, 11 August 2005

    [83]. Displaced Kashmiri Pandits - Dreams to go home but skepticism overpowers, The Kashmir Times, 4 June 2005

    [84]. Kashmiris seek withdrawal of draconian Acts, The Kashmir Times, 27 April 2005

    [85]. Asiya, 8 others booked under PSA, The Kashmir Times, 7 September 2005

    [86]. Under the shadow of a dead Act, The Telegraph, 13 July 2005

    [87]. Centre initiates review of detention in J&K, The Kashmir Times, 7 September 2005

    [88]. 44 ‘Political prisoners' on release list not freed, The Kashmir Times, 18 October 2005

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