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Nepal: What next?
Ineffectiveness of suspension of military aid

Embargoed for 24 February 2005

1. Introduction. 2

2. Continued political repression. 2

Academicians 3

Student leaders

3. Attacks on press freedom. 4

4. Attacks on human rights defenders. 5

5. Lack of independent judiciary. 5

6. Atrocities by security forces. 5

7. Atrocities by the Maoists. 6

Annexure I: Partial list of detainees. 8

A riot policeman detains human rights activist Bashu Devekota during a protest
Courtesy: www.freerepublic.com

Introduction

While the United Kingdom has suspended military aid to Nepal [1] , India has stalled its military supply. [2] The United States is yet to take any such measure though it has threatened to stop military aid. [3] While these measures are welcome, they are too little, too late and absolutely ineffective to address the concerns of the international community. Given the volumes of weaponry already transferred to the Royal Nepalese Army (RNA) in the last couple of years, suspension of military aid is not a source for an immediate crisis for King Gyanendra or the RNA. King Gyanendra can certainly withstand the suspension of military aid and continue his dictatorship at least for 100 days that he sought.

Indeed, India and United Kingdom face the question “what next?” if King Gyanendra does not respond to the call of international community for the restoration of democracy. The repression and human rights violations from 16-23 February 2005 as summarised in this Briefing Paper nowhere gives the indication that the King is in a mood to relent. On 23 February 2005, Nepalese Defence Secretary Bishnu Dutta Uprety told the BBC that Nepal would explore alternate sources of military supplies. [4]

Kathmandu valley remains the epicenter of the ongoing power struggle. The blockade announced by the Maoists has reportedly not been total.  The RNA, with massive deployment, has reportedly managed to keep at least one route for the flow of goods and traffic from India to Kathmandu open. While there are disruptions by the Maoists, the supply lifeline to Kathmandu has been kept open. There is fear but crisis in essential goods does not appear imminent in the capital city. The RNA is escorting the lorry drivers who face the stark choice of being killed by the Maoists if they ply and by the RNA if they do not!

If King Gyanendra can keep his hold on to the Kathmandu valley, the peripheries outside of the valley matter little. In the areas outside of Kathmandu, restrictions on the media have stopped flow of information from rural Nepal. The journalists are either on the run or have to keep mum. Those who appear to be crossing the limits are summoned. Because of the Maoists’ blockade, human rights activists cannot move around and most are into hiding. The telephones are tapped. The King can pursue his own agenda of suppression and oppression as a means of restoring normalcy to the situation.  On the 55th democracy day, King Gyanendra cut phone lines in his effort to quell possible protests by political parties and rights activists. Hundreds of political activists have been arrested this week.

If international community seeks to bring immediate change to the situation in Nepal, they must suspend all aid including humanitarian and development aid by countries like Denmark and Switzerland. The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation [5] has suspended all its programmes due to security reasons. In addition to the security threat, there is no guarantee that King will not utilise humanitarian aid for education, health, culture and infrastructure for military purposes such as buying fuels for the armed forces.

International community must also ensure that United Nations agencies and multi-lateral financial agencies like the World Bank, IMF and Asian Development Bank suspend such humanitarian and development aid. Life appears to go on as usual for most UN agencies in Nepal without any apparent instructions from the Secretary General’s office. The statements of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on 1 February 2005 and nine independent experts on 8 February 2005 have been timid and have failed to nuance the concerns and sensitivity necessary to capture the intensity and urgency of the situations and the sentiments of a people living under anarchy of an absolute monarchy.

Continued political repression

While the King freed about 150 inmates, mainly convicted criminals, from different prisons across the country on the occasion of 55th National Democracy Day on 18 February 2005, [6] over one hundred activists of Nepali Congress and other opposition parties were detained from all over the country for carrying out peaceful demonstrations in favour of peace and democracy. [7]

In addition to those who have been arrested or put under house arrests as stated in out last two briefing papers, the security forces arrested a large number of political activists, academicians and student leaders during the week from 16-23 February 2005.

On 15 February 2005, three Nepali Congress workers —Raghubar Bhatta, Lok Raj Bhatta and Ganesh Datta Bhatta— were reportedly arrested by the security forces at the district headquarters of Dadeldhura. All of them are district-level workers of the party. They have been detained at the district police office. [8]

On 16 February 2005, security personnel arrested Nepali Congress (NC) Spokesperson Arjun Narsingh KC and NC leader Meena Pandey from the party office at Sanepa. The NC Spokesperson was reportedly arrested while he was addressing a press meet called to announce launching of a peaceful agitation by major political parties against the royal takeover. [9]   

On 17 February 2005, Lalitpur District President of Nepali Congress Jagat Raj Shakya was picked up by security forces from his residence at Patan. [10]

On 18 February 2005, eight activists including former member of parliament Hari Bhakta Adhikari, Meena Pandey of women’s wing of the Nepali Congress (NC) and leader of NC’s student wing Keshav Poudel were arrested in Kathmandu while taking out a rally demanding restoration of democratic rule. About three-dozen cadres of Nepali Congress and Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP, Anandi Devi) were rounded up by police in Janakpur in eastern Nepal. Eight leaders including former Members of Parliament Ananda Prasad Dhungana and Smriti Narayan Chaudhari were arrested in the morning, along with six others. Former mayor Brishesh Chandra Lal and NSP district Chief Ram Govinda Ray were arrested from near their party offices. In Pokhara, police intervened at a protest rally organized by Nepali Congress and arrested 15 cadres including Upper House member Shukra Raj Sharma. In Tanahun, Nepali Congress leader Ram Chandra Pokharel was picked up by police from a rally. In Dhangadhi, NC central member Sunil Kumar Bhandari was arrested along with 10 others. Nine persons, including Nepali Congress Doti district chief Yagya Raj Pathak, were arrested in Dipayal. [11] Besides them, Mukti Prasad Sharma from Kathmandu, former NC MP Dr. Gopal Koirala from Jhapa and former NC legislator Puskar Ojha from Kanchanpur were detained. Ms. Ram Kumari Jhakri, a UML activist, was also detained. [12] Police also detained former NC lawmaker Shivadhari Yadav in southern town of Janakpur. Former MP Basudev Bhatta and Surendra Bista were detained in Mahendranagar while staging peaceful demonstrations. Police have detained four activists affiliated to Nepali Congress (Democratic) including district president of the party, Hari Rajoure. [13]

Other Nepali Congress leaders and activists arrested on 18 February 2005 include Rajan Dahal, Dr Krishna Prasad Dahal, Satya Raj Bhandari, Kamal Bahadur Khatri, Hari Kumar Koirala, Ram Kumar Mulmi, Jagadish Kuinkel, Sarita Ban, Keshav Poudel, Pradip Khadka, Bishal Regmi, Mani Raj Regmi, Ram Prasad Kafle, Ram Bahadur Bista, Bharat Raj Bhandari and Lab Shri Neupane.

In addition to the above, those arrested during 18 February 2005 protest rally and the evening prior to it include Dipak Poudel, Mukti Prasad Sharma, Jit Bahadur Puri, Rajendra Dhital, Kumar Khadka, Bal Chandra Poudel, Gopal Subedi, Hari Khadka, Prabhat Ale and Rajendra KC. According to the Nepali Congress, a total of 45 party leaders were arrested in Kathmandu and other parts of the country. [14]

On 20 February 2005, security personnel detained nine workers of the Nepali Congress (NC) including Poshanath Sharma, Kaski district secretary, as they came out on the street chanting ‘pro-democracy’ slogans in Pokhara. Two of those arrested are women cadres. [15]  

Academicians

The government also arrested about half a dozen academicians "without any reason". Nepal University Teachers’ Association (NUTA) demanded their immediate release. Those arrested include academician former NUTA President Khagendra Bhattarai, Professor Lok Raj Baral, Professor Soubhagya Jung Karki, Professor Man Bahadur Bishwokarma, Dr Krishna Prasad Dahal, Ramakanta Sapkota and Jagannath Khatiwada. [16]

Student leaders

All Nepal National Free Students’ Union (ANNFSU) leader Ram Kumari Jhankri was arrested on 18 February 2005. [17]

On 22 February 2005, the Supreme Court issued a show cause notice to the government on the habeas corpus writ filed for six student leaders of All Nepal National Free Students’ Union (ANNFSU) - Om Prasad Aryal, Lochan KC, Mahesh Devkota, Dilliram Bohara, Joyti Sharma and Deepak Kumar Rai – who are in the government custody. [18]

Attacks on press freedom

The attacks on the press freedom continue unabated.

On 23 February 2005, the Kathmandu District Administration Office reportedly summoned the editors of four weekly newspapers- Navaraj Timilsinha, editor of Prakash; Gopal Budhathoki, editor of Sanghu; Kabir Rana, editor of Deshanter; and Rajendra Baidha, editor of Bimarsh. [19] Earlier, Kathmandu District Administration Office had summoned Kapil Kafle, Editor of Rajdhani daily, Ujwal Sharma, Editor and Kiran Pokharel, News Editor of Himalaya Times daily. [20]

According to International Federation of Journalists, at least 600 journalists have lost their jobs since February 1. Over a thousand more could lose their jobs if the current trend continues. [21]

On 21 February 2005, security forces arrested a local newspaper editor
Anil Tiwari, editor of the local Ankush daily at Parsa. Eyewitnesses stated that security forces took him away saying that they had something to interrogate. They also threatened the daily's publisher Dependra Chauhan over a cartoon and "other news" published.

On 18 February 2005, security forces reportedly snatched cameras from photojournalists Suman Dahal of Annapurna Daily and Tribhubhan Poudel of a local Hotline Daily while they were taking pictures of the protest march in Pokhara. [22]

On 16 February 2005, security forces arrested Khem Bhandari, editor of Abhiyan daily published from Mahendranagar. He was picked up for covering protest rallies by political parties in his daily on 15 February 2005. [23]

On 15 February 2005, Kantipur’s Dadeldhura correspondent D R Panta was arrested by security personnel at the district headquarters of Dadeldhura. [24]

On 14 February 2005, the Supreme Court asked the concerned government authorities to appear before the court with a written explanation within three days regarding the arrest of Bishnu Nisthuri, General Secretary of the Federation of Nepalese Journalists. [25] He is continued to be detained along with the following journalists:

1.      Sujiv Bajracharya, publisher and editor of Sandhyakalin City Times, and other reporters affiliated with state-owned Gorkhapatra daily and Rastriya Samachar Samiti.

2.      Basanta Parajuli of Gorkhapatra and Rastriya Samachar Samiti representative from Chitwan [26]

3.      Narayan Adhikari of Rastriya Samachar Samiti (Chitwan)

4.      D R Pant, reporter of The Kathmandu Post (Dadeldhura) [27]

5.      Narayan Adhikari, reporter of the RSS

A rough translation of the order issued to media in Nepalgunj by the District Administration Office on 7 February 2005 is given below:

1. Newspapers registered in Nepalgunj and that have been publishing regularly are required to publish remaining within the parameters of this notice, after receiving a copy of the notice.

2. No newspaper/ media should publish news that could adversely affect the country's sovereignty, unity and peace and security.

3. Nothing should be published that would be against the Royal Family and the Royal Proclamation of February 1.

4. Do not publish news on the strikes called by the Maoists and their sister (frontal) organizations and about the human and material loss of the security forces and government offices.

5. It is alright to mention losses suffered by the Maoists in actions by security forces but do not publish information on accidental civilian losses other than what is mentioned in the statement issued by the government spokesman.

6. It is alright to publish information on civilian losses caused by the Maoists.

7. It is alright for the press to verify information on Maoist activities and movements obtained from various sources with the security forces.

8. It is alright to point out weaknesses and mistakes and irregularities at government offices after through testing (investigation) and where possible with proof, but do not publish unfounded (reports) that could assassinate the character and discourage government employees.

9. Do not publish information and activities of political (parties) and organizations related with them; publish activities of social, religious, economic organizations.

10. Do not publish news on the Maoists and other political organizations by quoting news and articles published or broadcast in foreign (media). Also do not publish news on activities of Maoists in Indian Territory.

11. Compulsorily make available, free of cost, one copy of publications for monitoring to the monitoring committee

12. Abide by other directives of the Information and Communications Ministry.”

Attacks on human rights defenders

Human rights activist, Krishna Pahari continues to be under detention since 9 February 2005.

On 17 February 2005, Gauri Pradhan, a renowned human rights activist and founder president of Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre (CWIN), was arrested by the police without any reason upon his arrival at Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu. Pradhan was reportedly returning home after taking part in meetings related to child rights held in the Netherlands and Geneva. [28] On 22 February 2005, the Supreme Court ordered the government to produce Gauri Pradhan before the court on 28 February 2005. Pradhan’s wife Sumnima had filed a habeas corpus at the apex court seeking his release. [29]

Lack of independent judiciary

The Supreme Court has been rejecting writ petitions seeking legal remedy in recent days though they were filed under the non-suspended articles of the constitution arguing that Article 23 should be invoked while delivering legal remedy under Article 88 (2) of the 1990 constitution.

On 21 February 2005, Chief Justice (CJ) Hari Prasad Sharma publicly defended the rejection of writ petitions saying that the issue was "political".

However, past records of the Supreme Court (SC) pertaining to the last emergency in 2001-2002 show that over 400 writ petitions seeking legal remedy under Article 88 (1) and (2), which is not suspended even during emergency, had been admitted as per the constitution. Nepal Bar Association expressed its serious concern, and accused the Supreme Court of denying entertainment of such writ petitions under the "pretext of emergency". [30]

On 17 February 2005, lawyers including Nepal Bar Association President, Shambhu Thapa had urged the Chief Justice and some other senior judges of the Apex Court to make necessary arrangements to accept writ petitions regarding the non-suspended rights. However, the Chief Justice expressed his inability. [31]

Atrocities by security forces

Truth is the first casualty in war. Given the complete censorship, the claims of the RNA cannot be verified. The following incidents involving loss of lives were reported.

On 17 February 2005, the RNA reportedly killed one Prem Kami, an alleged Maoist rebel, in security action at Swati area of Sankhuwasabha district. RNA also claimed to have recovered some improvised bombs from the deceased. [32]

On the afternoon of 19 February 2005, security forces claimed to have shot dead an area member of Maoists called ‘Dikshya’ during operation at Lakhwar area of Saudiyar area in Dang. The security sources also claimed to have killed one Bishnu Pandey alias ‘Arjun’, an alleged district level Maoist leader, in retaliatory action in Papariya VDC in Sarlahi. [33]

In the evening of 19 February 2005, at least a dozen Maoists were allegedly killed in a clash with the security forces at Sakhuwa Mahendranagar VDC in Dhanusha district. One security man was killed and five others were injured in the clash. [34]

According to RNA sources, 20 Maoists have been killed in security operations during 17-19 February 2005. Twelve Maoists were killed on 17 February 2005; five were killed on 18 February 2005, and three on 19 February 2005. Those killed on 17 February 2005 have been identified as Ramjan Musalman, Maoists’ secretary of Ganeshpur Village Development Committee, Ram Das, Dukhi Chamar, Binayatulla Musalman, Ramjan Musalman. Bishnu Panthi, coordinator of Maoists-aligned Nepal Trade Union, Kapilabastu, and his two bodyguards, Yam Bahadur Dalamagar and Jhilkan Yadav, were killed on 19 February 2005. [35]

The RNA also claimed to have killed at least 11 Maoists during 21 –22 February 2005. While a Maoist rebel was killed in security action at Bayarban area of Morang district on 21 February 2005, the security forces gunned down another four Maoists at Ghandighach jungle area of Suda VDC in Kanchanpur on 22 February 2005. The security forces also shot dead Dasu Poudel, a district level Maoist and Raja Ram Kumal, another rebel, at Dandagaon area of Bharatpokhari VDC-4 of Kaski district. In Arghakhanchi security forces shot dead four Maoists including two females. One of the dead is identified as Gyan Bahadur Shrestha. [36]

On 22 February 2005, state-owned Radio Nepal announced that at least 12 Maoist insurgents were killed in a security action at Dakaha of Sirthauli VDC in central Sindhuli district on 21 February 2005. [37]

On 22 February 2005, at least 10 Maoists have been allegedly killed in separate security actions in different parts of the country with 4 of them getting killed in Suda VDC, 4 Maoists, including two district level leaders in Arghakhanchi district, and 2 in Kaski district. Those killed in Kaski district were district members of the All Nepal Labour Association identified as Dashu Poudel and Rajaram Kumal. [38]

7. Atrocities by the Maoists

The Maoists have also been responsible for violations of international humanitarian law standards and targeting the schools, hospitals and ambulances.

On the evening of 17 February 2005, an unidentified group set afire and destroyed the ancestral home of Radha Krishna Mainali, the minister for Education and Sports, at Jamunbadi of Suranga VDC-1. Another group of unidentified miscreants reportedly torched two trucks at Khairahi VDC on Mahendra Highway on the afternoon of 18 February 2005. [39]

An unidentified gang shot dead Tej Narayan Prasad Chanau, a teacher at Neda Primary School teacher of Amritgunj-5, after abducting him on the night of 18 February 2005. He was shot at the head and chest that killed him on the spot behind the area police post at Simraungadh. [40]

The Maoists have called an indefinite economic blockade since 13 February 2005 to oppose the royal takeover. This has brought traffic to a virtual halt on all key highways and affected normal life. Due to shortage of supply of essential goods mainly cooking gas, kerosene and vegetables, their prices soared up. Only a few cargo vehicles and passengers buses entered the capital amidst intensified patrolling. Sixty-five tankers carrying petroleum products from Indian cities of Gonda and Allahabad were stranded for five days on the border in western Nepal due to the strike. [41]

On 20 February 2005, Nripad Kumar Parveji, a truck driver from Nagpur (India), was shot dead by the Maoists at Charaudi Bazaar area on Prithvi Highway for defying the economic blockade. He was returning to India after delivering goods in Kathmandu. [42]

Nearly half a dozen passengers were injured when the Maoists opened fire at a bus at Mugling, 90 km west of Kathmandu. In another incident, two cyclists were injured in a bomb blast on the Mahendra Highway. [43]

On 17 February 2005, Maoists reportedly torched at least 13 goods carriers, burning 58 live buffaloes loaded in two of the trucks, at Jogimara section of the Prithvi Highway. Mansoor Alam Ansari, owner of the buffaloes, said the armed rebels had fired at the tires of the vehicles before setting them alight. The vehicles included a tanker loaded with kerosene, while the rest of the trucks were carrying commodities such as rice, cement, coal and rods. [44]

On the night of 20 February 2005, Maoist insurgents reportedly destroyed a sub-station of Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) at Kohalpur of Banke district. At least two persons were killed in the blast and four districts in the mid-western region- Banke, Baridya, Surkhet and Dailekh- have been deprived of power. [45]

Even schools in Nepalgunj have reportedly come under attack. On 20 February 2005, the Maoists detonated explosives in several schools including Mahendra High School, Modern Public School, Mangal Secondary School, Chandra Mewalal Secondary School and Bheri Technical School, [46] for having defied their “educational strike”. [47]

Earlier on the night of 14 February 2005, the Maoists reportedly bombed and destroyed six schools - Ratmata Secondary School, Solawang Secondary School, Kailideu Lower Secondary School, Thurpunge Lower Secondary School, Dangdunge Primary School and Garadhunga Primary School in Musikot, the district headquarters of Rukum. This has left the students and the teachers terrorized. Some 50 candidates for the upcoming School Leaving Certificate (SLC) exams would be immediate victims. [48]

Scores of girls could not sit for the nursing examination, which was conducted at Nepalgunj on 19 February 2005. They could not reach Nepalgunj due to absence of transport due to the blockade. [49]

On 22 February 2005, Maoists reportedly bombed and set on fire an ambulance run by a non-profit organisation near Khaireni along the Kohalpur-Lamahi section of the Mahendra highway “for defying the blockades.” Prior to the bombing, the Maoists forced the driver Krishna Chaudhari, and Ganesh Kumar Gupta, chairman of Rapti Seva Sangh out of the vehicle. [50]

The Maoists’ blockade has also hit the main government Zonal Hospital in the southwestern town of Lumbini due to halt of the supply of oxygen cylinders from the capital Kathmandu. Hospital sources said lack of oxygen has prevented doctors from performing all but the most serious operations. The Lumbini Zonal Hospital issued a notice on 21 February 2005 saying it has suspended operations until the shortage of oxygen is resolved. [51]

The stoppage of transportation due to the indefinite blockade called by the Maoists has adversely affected industries based in this eastern city of Biratnagar. Many industries have reduced production by 70 per cent. [52]

On the morning of 22 February 2005, Mahendra Shahi, the driver of a bus, and a passenger identified as Deu Prakash Rai were seriously wounded in indiscriminate firing by Maoists at Manigram area of Anandawan VDC in Rupandehi. On the same day,  Suntauli Darji, 50, of Nalang VDC-6 of Dhading died when a stray bomb exploded at a nearby road. Darji had gone in search of firewood. [53]

Annexure I: Partial list of detainees

Asian Centre for Human Rights was able to gather the following partial list of detainees in addition to the list of detainees provided in our second weekly Briefing paper on 17 February 2005.

  1. Manju Bhattarai, NTUC activist
  2. Pushkar Acharya, NTUC activist
  3. Kishore Gautam, NTUC activist
  4. Raghubar Bhatta, NC worker
  5. Lok Raj Bhatta, NC worker
  6. Gauri Pradhan, CWIN chief
  7. Jagat Raj Shakya, NC Lalitpur District President
  8. Hari Bhakta Adhikari, former MP
  9. Keshav Poudel, leader of NC’s student wing
  10. Ananda Prasad Dhungana, former MP
  11. Smriti Narayan Chaudhari, former MP
  12. Brishesh Chandra Lal, former mayor
  13. Ram Govinda Ray, NSP district Chief
  14. Shukra Raj Sharma, MP
  15. Sunil Kumar Bhandari, NC central member
  16. Yagya Raj Pathak, Nepali Congress Doti district chief
  17. Mukti Prasad Sharma, NC
  18. Dr. Gopal Koirala, former NC lawmaker
  19. Puskar Ojha, former NC legislator
  20. Ms. Ram Kumari Jhakri, UML activist
  21. Shivadhari Yadav, Congress
  22. Basudev Bhatta, Former MP
  23. Surendra Bista
  24. Hari Rajoure, Nepali Congress (Democratic) district president
  25. Rajan Dahal, NC
  26. Satya Raj Bhandari, NC
  27. Kamal Bahadur Khatri, NC
  28. Hari Kumar Koirala, NC
  29. Ram Kumar Mulmi, NC
  30. Jagadish Kuinkel, NC
  31. Sarita Ban, NC
  32. Pradip Khadka, NC
  33. Bishal Regmi, NC
  34. Mani Raj Regmi, NC
  35. Ram Prasad Kafle, NC
  36. Ram Bahadur Bista, NC
  37. Bharat Raj Bhandari, NC
  38. Lab Shri Neupane, NC
  39. Dipak Poudel,
  40. Jit Bahadur Puri,
  41. Rajendra Dhital,
  42. Kumar Khadka,
  43. Bal Chandra Poudel,
  44. Gopal Subedi,
  45. Hari Khadka,
  46. Prabhat Ale,
  47. Rajendra KC
  48. Khagendra Bhattarai, former NUTA President
  49. Professor Lok Raj Baral, academician 
  50. Professor Soubhagya Jung Karki, academician 
  51. Professor Man Bahadur Bishwokarma, academician 
  52. Dr Krishna Prasad Dahal, academician 
  53. Ramakanta Sapkota, academician 
  54. Jagannath Khatiwada, academician 
  55. Hemanta BC, leader of CPN (United)
  56. Poshanath Sharma, NC Kaski district secretary
  57. Khem Bhandari, editor of Abhiyan daily
  58. Sujiv Bajracharya, publisher and editor of Sandhyakalin City Times
  59. Basanta Parajuli of Gorkhapatra
  60. Narayan Adhikari of Rastriya Samachar Samiti (Chitwan),

[1] . Britain suspends military aid to Nepal, The Kantipuronline, 23 February 2005

[2] . India, UK suspend military aid to Nepal, The Tribune, 23 February 2005

[3] . Military aid to Nepal may be cut: US, The Times of India, 18 February 2005

[4] . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4289765.stm

[5] . SDC suspends projects due to security reasons, The Nepal News, 23 February 2005

6.150 inmates freed, The Kantipuronline, 18 February 2005

[7] . Over hundred opposition activists detained, nepalnews.com, 19 February 2005

[8] . Kantipur correspondent and 3 others under arrest, The Kantipuronline, 17 February 2005

[9] . Two NC leaders detained, The Kantipuronline, 17 February 2005

[10] . CWIN chief arrested, The Kathmandu Post, 18 February 2005

[11] . Protests, arrests mark Democracy Day, The Kathmandu Post, 19 February 2005

[12] . Dozens of activists detained, nepalnews.com, 18 February 2005

[13] . Over hundred opposition activists detained, nepalnews.com, 19 February 2005

[14] . NUTA demands release of professors, others, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[15] . 9 NC cadres arrested, The Kathmandu Post, 21 February 2005 

[16] . NUTA demands release of professors, others, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[17] . Ibid

[18] . Court orders govt to produce Pradhan, The Kantipuronline, 23 February 2005

[19] . 4 weekly editors summoned, The Kantipuronline, 23 February 2005

[20] . End arbitrary arrests: Reporters’ Club, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[21] . IFJ chief concerned over journos’ employment, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[22] . Forces snatch cameras, The Kathmandu Post, 19 February 2005

[23] . Editor detained, Kantipuronline, 17 February 2005

[24] . Kantipur correspondent and 3 others under arrest, The Kantipuronline, 17 February 2005

[25] . Apex court seeks explanation on Nisthuri’s arrest, The Nepal News, 16 February 2005

[26] . Editor held for publishing Koirala plea, The Statesman, 20 February 2005

[27] . End arbitrary arrests: Reporters’ Club, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[28] . CWIN chief arrested, The Kathmandu Post, 18 February 2005

[29] . Court orders govt to produce Pradhan, The Kantipuronline, 23 February 2005

[30] . CJ defends rejection of legal remedy, The Kathmandu Post, 23 February 2005

[31] Rights issue is political: CJ Sharma, The Nepal News, 22 February 2005

[32] . 5 Maoists killed in violence, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[33] . Ibid

[34] . 12 Maoists killed in Dhanusha clash, The Himalayan Times, 20 February 2005

[35] . Maoists lose 20 cadres in 3 days, The Himalayan Times, 20 February 2005

[36] . 11 Maoists killed, The Kathmandu Post, 23 February 2005

[37] . 12 Maoists killed in latest security action, The Nepal News, 22 February 2005

[38] . 10 Maoists killed in separate clashes, The Kantipuronline, 23 February 2005

[39] . Unidentified groups torch house, vehicles, The Kathmandu Post, 19 February 2005

[40] . Teacher shot dead, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[41] . Indian driver killed by Nepal's Maoists, The Times, 22 February 2005

[42] . Ibid

[43] . Ibid

[44] . 13 vehicles torched on Prithvi Highway, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[45] . Maoists bomb NEA sub-station; two killed, four districts without power, The Nepal News, 22 February 2005

[46] . Ibid

[47] . Maoists rule Nepal highways, The Telegraph, 23 February 2005

[48] . Rebels destroy six schools, SLC students affected, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[49] . Bandas, blockades cripple life, The Kathmandu Post, 20 February 2005

[50] . Maoist bomb an ambulance, The Nepal News, 23 February 2005

[51] . Nepal hospitals hit by blockade, The Asian Age, 23 February 2005

[52] . Transportation blockade affects Biratnagar industries, The Kathmandu Post, 22 February 2005

[53] . 11 Maoists killed, The Kathmandu Post, 23 February 2005


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