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    Pakistan:
    The Land of Religious Apartheid and Jackboot Justice


    Executive summary and recommendations

    On 14 August 2007, the United Nations Committee on the International Convention Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD Committee) is tentatively scheduled to examine the situation of Pakistan without the report of the government of Pakistan. The government Pakistan has failed to submit its five periodic reports since January 1998. It is highly regrettable that Pakistan has chosen not to cooperate with the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. The last periodic report (CERD/C/299/Add.6) submitted by the government of Pakistan on 13 June 1996 also failed to provide adequate information relevant to the ICERD.

    The key issues of concerns which are of relevant to the UN CERD Committee are summarised below:

    Legalisation of religious apartheid:

    Pakistan government in its policies, programmes and laws only recognises the religious minorities but not the ethnic, linguistic or racial minorities living in the country.

    The Constitution of Pakistan segregates its citizens on the basis of religion; and provides preferential treatment to the Muslims. While Article 2 of the Constitution declares Islam as “the State religion of Pakistan” and the Holy Quran and Sunnah to be “the supreme law and source of guidance for legislation to be administered through laws enacted by the Parliament and Provincial Assemblies, and for policy making by the Government”, under Article 41(2) only a Muslim can become President. Further, Article 260 of the Constitution differentiates “Muslim” and “Non-Muslim” thereby facilitating and encouraging discrimination on the basis of religion.

    The Constitution is so glued to providing preferential treatment to the majority Muslims that even a Hindu judge has to take oath of office in the name of “Allah”. On 24 March 2007,  Justice Rana Bhagwandas, a Hindu, while being sworn in as Acting Chief Justice of Pakistan, being the senior most judge after the suspension of Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, had to take oath with a Quranic prayer - “May Allah Almighty help and guide me, (A'meen)”. [1]

     

    Provisions of the Pakistan Penal Code, in particular, Section 295-A, Section 295-B, Section 295-C, Section 298-A, Section 298-B provide harsh punishment for alleged blasphemy. These blasphemy laws undermine some of the major provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan such as the fundamental right to “profess, practice and propagate his religion” (Article 20), equality before the law and equal protection of law to all citizens (Article 25), and safeguard the “legitimate rights and interests of minorities” (Article 36). The Apostasy Bill 2006 introduced by the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) in the National Assembly in May 2007 seeks, among others, to provide death sentence to any Muslim converting to other religions and imposes life imprisonment for women apostates. [2]

     

    Teaching hatred in schools:

     

    The Hindus and Hinduism have been allegedly maligned and hatred against them are propagated in the text books approved by the National Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education. Among others, Hindus have been stated as “enemy of Islam” in the textbooks of Class V. [3]

     

    Persecution under blasphemy laws:

     

    Since Ahmadis have been declared as heretic, practicing their faith in public can be described as blasphemous and therefore, the dagger of blasphemy laws perennially hang over their heads. Blasphemy laws have been widely abused and mis-used to target the minorities and sometimes, to settle personal vendetta even among the Muslims. Between 1 January to 1 June 2007, at least 25 persons out of which 16 were Christians including 9 women were victimised under the blasphemy laws. [4] In 2006, 90 cases of blasphemy were reported. Out of these, only 48 were registered with the police in which 27 accused were Muslims, 10 Christians and 11 Ahmadis. [5] Considering that Christians, Hindus and Ahmadis constitute only slightly more than four percent of the total population of Pakistan, they have been disproportionate victims of the blasphemy laws. On 30 May 2007, Younis Masih, a Christian, was sentenced to death on charges of blasphemy by the Sessions Court in Lahore. He was charged on 10 September 2005 under Section 295-C of Pakistan Penal Code. [6]

     

    Even the anti-terror laws are invoked against those accused of blasphemy and often the judiciary sanctifies the charges. On 8 June 2007, Mr. Saeed Ahmad, an Ahmadi, was arrested under Section 298-C of Pakistan Penal Code at Nakdar Police Station in Sargodha district (FIR No 73/2007). Later, the police added Clause 9 of the Anti-Terrorism Act to the charge sheet. [7] Earlier on 25 November 2006, an Anti-Terrorism Court sentenced two Christians - James Masih (65) and Buta Masih (70) - to 10 years imprisonment in addition to a fine of Rupees 25,000 for committing “blasphemy” against the Quran in October 2006 in Faisalabad district. [8]

     

    Even children were not spared. On 26 January 2007, police reportedly registered cases against five Ahmadi children identified as 11-year-old Nusrat Jahan, daughter of Hakim Muhammad Sadiq of Ahmadabad Janoobi; 8-year-old Umair Ahmad, son of Ghulam Ahmad of Ahmadabad Janoobi; Ashfaq Ahmad, son of Muhammad Mumtaz of Khai Kalan; Rafi Ahmad, son of Muhammad Yousaf of Omerabad Majoka; and Abdul Sattar, son of Ahmad Hasan of Thathi Omerabad under Section 17 of the Maintenance of Public Order Ordinance in Chora Kalan police station in Khushab district for subscribing to Jamaat-e-Ahmadiya's monthly children's magazine Tasheezul Azhan. [9]

     

    Those who faced blasphemy charges continued to live in fear even after acquittal by the courts. A Christian identified as Shahid Masih of Faisalabad had to go into hiding although he was released on bail on 17 January 2007 in a blasphemy case. Judge Muhammad Tanveer Akbar granted Shahid Masih bail on the ground that evidence against him was only “circumstantial”. Yet, he faced threats from the fundamentalists and had to go into hiding. [10]

     

    Denial of government jobs:

     

    The religious minorities have been denied proportional representation in government jobs. According to the 13th census of civil servants-2006, an overwhelming majority (97.51 per cent) of the federal civil servants are Muslims while only 250 civil servants (0.11 per cent) are Ahmadis, 499 civil servants (0.21 per cent) are Hindus, 23 civil servants are Buddhists, 4,731 (2.01 per cent) civil servants are Christians and 22 civil servants of “other' religions and 0.14 per cent whose religions have not been disclosed. [11] Minorities are often discriminated in government jobs on the basis of religious belief. On 15 May 2007, Mr. Amjad Mahmud was fired from service in the Atomic Energy Commission while 40 of his colleagues who were Muslims, were regularised in August 2006. He was allegedly fired for being an Ahmadi follower. [12] Earlier in April 2007, Mushtaq Masih, a Christian, who was employed as a sweeper by the municipal administration, was suspended from his job because of his arrest under suspicion of blasphemy. [13]

     

    Denial of freedom of movement:

     

    Since July 2003, Ahmadis travelling to Mecca for the Hajj must officially denounce in writing the founder of the Ahmadi faith, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as a “cunning person and an imposter”. [14] In March 2005, the government of Pakistan restored the discriminatory practice of making it mandatory to include religious identity of individuals in all new passports. That requirement was earlier withdrawn in November 2004. [15] On 12 February 2007, the daily Khabrain reported that the government made it necessary for an applicant to certify his/her faith in the ‘End of Prophethood' in the application form for national identity card. The newly printed forms for the national identity card reportedly included the attestation concerning the End of Prophethood. [16]

     

    Denial of freedom of expression:

     

    The Ahmadis in particular have been denied freedom of expression and assembly. Since 1983 the Ahmadis have been denied permission to hold their religious annual conference. [17] On 15 December 1989, the authorities booked the entire Ahmadi population of Rabwah (the headquarters of Ahmadis in Pakistan) in FIR 367/89 under Section 298C of Pakistan Penal Code. The FIR remains active to-date. [18] Ahmadis are prohibited from holding any public conference or gathering. [19]

     

    Ahmadi publications are banned from public sale. On 22 January 2007, the police raided the printing press of an Ahmadi proprietor, Tariq Mahmud Panipati at Lower Mall in Lahore and sealed the press. [20] Earlier, on 9 September 2006, the police raided the office of the daily Alfazl – published by the Ahmadiya community - at Chenab Nagar (Rabwah) in Punjab. Mr. Sultan Ahmad Dogar of Alfazl was arrested under Sections 298B and 298C of Pakistan Penal Code, Section 16 of Maintenance of Public Order and clause 9 of the Anti-Terrorism Act. Mr. Dogar was later released on bail. [21]

     

    Violations of ESCR rights:

     

    The minorities have been systematically denied economic, social and cultural rights. Their lands and properties including places of worship have been forcibly grabbed. Since July 2006 Hindus had been forcibly evicted from Panwal Das Compound area in Lyari in Karachi and Muslim butchers turned the Shiv Mandir of the Hindus into a slaughter house in connivance with the police. [22] In another incident, following a notification from the Evacuee Trust Property Board of 9 March 2006, Krishna temple in Lahore was demolished to pave the way for construction of a commercial complex. [23] On 18 June 2006, the Lahore High Court stayed the construction of the commercial complex following a writ petition challenging the demolition of the temple. [24]

     

    The Christians' lands were illegally transferred to Muslims in Chawk Munda under Muzzafargarh district. On 1 November 2006, four Christian farmers namely Khurshid Mangta, Hadayat Masih, Gulzar and Nazir Pirandita were forcibly evicted from their lands and their crops were destroyed. Each person lost 10 acres of cultivable land which was their only source of livelihood. The land was reportedly transferred through Revenue department by Mr. Haider Shah. [25]

     

    The Ahmadis too have not been allowed to maintain their own graveyards. On 22 April 2007, the Lahore police bulldozed the boundary wall of a 6-acre piece of land legally procured by the Ahamdi community to extend their graveyard. The hardliners opposed the extension. [26]  

     

    Denial of equal treatment before the organs administering justice:

     

    The minorities have been denied the right to equal treatment and protection by the law enforcement personnel. Often, the police refused to register cases filed by the non-Muslims.  In the case of abduction and gang rape of a minor Christian girl identified as Cheena Bibi (12 years) on 8 April 2007 in Punjab, police did not act despite providing the details of one of the accused to the police by the brother of the victim, Munir Masih. [27] In the cases where the police arrested the Muslim accused, they are often let off without investigation. [28]

     

    Denial of protection against bodily harm:

     

    The minorities are not provided security by the State against bodily harm and violation of the right to life. In March 2007, the Pakistan Hindu Council (PHC) appealed to President Musharraf to direct the authorities to provide protection and take measures to recover kidnapped Hindus from Sakrand, Kashmore and Jacobabad. [29] The Hindus reportedly have to pay “protection money” to the local Muslim gangs or influential persons in order to avoid getting kidnapped for ransom. [30] On 6 February 2007, kidnapped Hindu engineer Garish Kumar was found dead in the premises of a madrassa in industrial area of Kotri in Sindh. [31] The deceased's father, Saspal Das alleged that Garish was killed for being a Hindu. [32]

     

    It is a crime for the Hindus to have land and beautiful daughters. Kidnapping, raping and forcible marriage of Hindu girls is a common practice in Pakistan. In case of arrest, the accused produce a certificate issued by any Muslim seminary that the kidnapped girls have voluntarily adopted Islam and the accused have married the girls. The courts generally do not consider the fact that the most of the girls are minor and simply accept the certificate of conversion without any investigation. [33] On 31 December 2006, a Hindu girl named Deepa (17 years) was abducted by her tuition teacher, Ashraf Khaskheli, a Muslim in Madhwani Mohala in Tharparkar district and forcibly married and converted her to Islam. A certificate of marriage and conversion to Islam was reportedly issued by Ayube Jan Sarhandi, the head of the seminary and the police allegedly refused to register the complaint filed by the girl's parents. [34]

     

    Many Christian families reportedly fled from their homes following a threatening letter received from Islamic militants at Charsada of North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) on 8 May 2007 asking them to convert to Islam within 10 days or face dire consequences. [35] In June 2007, Christians of Shantinagar village of Khanewal district in Punjab received similar threats to embrace Islam. [36] The police often failed to provide adequate protection.

     

    Denial of the right to vote:

     

    The religious minorities have been systematically excluded from the voters' list. On 12 June 2007, the Election Commission of Pakistan released a new voters' list for the upcoming general elections.  Instead of a joint voter list, the  Ahmadis were placed in a separate voters' list. [37] The Secretary of the Election Commission, Kunwar Dilshad Ahmed reportedly justified the separate list for the Ahmadis on the ground that a separate list for the community could help its members in checking the names and information of their members. [38]

     

    In July 2007, the All Pakistan Minorities Alliance claimed that 20 per cent of non-Muslim voters have been excluded from the new voters' list. [39] About 18 per cent eligible voters belonging to minorities have been struck out in the new voters' list in North West Frontier Province. [40] On 26 July 2007, the Supreme Court directed the Election Commission of Pakistan to ensure registration of all eligible voters in the new electoral rolls. [41]

     

    Discrimination against the Balochis:

     

    There have been reports of indiscriminate use of fire-arms and bombs by the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Air Force against the civilians while confronting the Baloch armed opposition groups. On the morning of 30 March 2007, thousands of Pakistan army soldiers entered and cordoned the Baloch villages of Lanju and Sagari in Sui area near Mazari goot on Balochistan-Punjab border from Punjab while fighter jets and gunship helicopters bombarded the villages in turns for several hours.  At least 18 women, children and elderly persons were reportedly killed in the military action. [42] Earlier on 14 June 2006, four members of a family including two women and two children aged 7 and 3 years reportedly died in bombings by Pakistani Air Force jet planes in Gazital areas, 20 Km east of Marri tribal capital Kahan. [43]

     

    On 1 August 2007, the Supreme Court issued suo motu notices to Chief Secretary and Provincial Police Officer of Balochistan on the rising number of disappearances. [44] Hundreds of Balochis have been arrested and disappeared. While the Balochistan National Party-Mengal (BNP-M) claimed that around 4,000 Baloch youths, mainly political activists, were still in the custody of Pakistani intelligence agencies, [45] Human Rights Commission of Pakistan stated that out of 242 persons who were still missing as of 10 December 2006, 110 were from Balochistan, 70 from Sindh, 42 from Punjab and 20 from the North West Frontier Province. [46]

     

    Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) of Balochistan have been living in inhospitable situations and the government created further obstacles.  According to the United Nations agencies there were 84,000 IDPs in Balochistan of which 26,000 were women and 33,000 were children as of December 2006. [47]   The government  deliberately created the humanitarian crisis by not even recognizing the presence of IDPs in the province. When the government sought the intervention of the United Nations to avert the humanitarian crisis on 21 December 2006, it was too late. [48] Due to total blockade of Marri and Bugti areas by the Pakistani army, about 8,000 to 10,000 allegedly died due to malnourishment, lack of shelter and disease. The makeshift camps had no access to potable water, food, and other basic necessities. No medicine and medical facility, doctor and electricity or even fuel to run water pumps were not provided to these areas. [49] The  government prevented journalists and aid groups to reach the affected areas [50] and therefore, the extent of the man made disaster could not be reported. Even the assistance from the UN was sought only for three districts of Naseerabad, Jaffarabad and Quetta and not for Sibi and Bolan districts. Besides, the UN was asked to carry out its relief operation under the supervision of local authorities. [51]

     

    The Federally Administered Tribal Areas: The Dark, Dark Region 

     

    FATA remains the DARK, DARK region where there is no rule of law. It is not only because Taleban inspired armed groups seek to impose medieval practices but effectively Pakistan too practices the similar medieval legal practices under the Frontier Crime Regulation (FCR) of 1901. The entire region has been deprived of any semblance of legal reforms that took place elsewhere in Pakistan and these repressive measures have further strengthened the Al-Queda type practices.

     

    People of FATA live at the mercy of the President of Pakistan. Under Article 247(3), no act of the Parliament shall apply to FATA or any part thereof unless the President so directs. As the FCR, which is antithetical to due process of law, governs the administration of justice and Pakistan kept the region in legal darkness.

     

    First, the FCR provides for collective punishment to the family members or blood relatives instead of punishing only the guilty. [52]

     

    Second, under Section 21 of the FCR, the political authorities like the Political Agents and Assistant Political Agents of the government enjoy unbridled powers [53]   including the powers of a) seizure, wherever they may be found, of all or any of the members of such tribe and of all or any property belonging to them or any of them; b) detention in safe custody of any person or property so seized; c) confiscation of any such property and, with like sanction, by public proclamation; d) debarring all or any member of the tribe from all access into the (country); and e) prohibiting all or any person within the limits of British India from all interaction or communication of any kind whatsoever, or of any specified kind or kinds, with such tribe or any section or members thereof. [54]

     

    Third, FCR does not provide any fair trial. People suspected of having committed a criminal offence are tried by the tribal jirga or council which submits its recommendations regarding conviction or acquittal to the Political Agent who makes a decision regarding conviction or acquittal but is not bound by the jirga's recommendations. [55] Moreover, the suspects are tried without legal representation. [56] There is no provision of appeal against conviction or punishment order by the Political Agents as the jurisdiction of Pakistan's higher judiciary is barred under Article 247(7) of the constitution from exercising its jurisdiction in the FATA. [57]

     

    Tribal prisoners in FATA regions reportedly served two or more sentences for the same crime. While hearing a jail writ petition of Rahimullah, a division bench of Peshawar High Court consisting of Chief Justice Tariq Pervaz Khan and Justice Qaim Jan Khan directed the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) security secretary to check the “unbridled” powers of political authorities and the human rights violations carried out by them. The Assistant Political Agent (APA) of Bara had sentenced Rahimullah under section 40 of the FCR on 15 December 2003 but before the completion of Rahimullah's first jail term, the APA passed another order on 14 January 2005 against him in the same crime. As if that was not enough, before the completion of Rahimullah's second illegal jail term, the APA passed a third conviction order on 25 May 2006, for another three years for the same crime. [58]  

     

    In the war against Taleban and Al-Queda, the tribals of FATA have become   victims of indiscriminate attacks by the Pakistani military. On 30 October 2006, 82 people including at least 12 children were reportedly killed in an air strike at a madrassa (Islamic religious school) in Damadola in Bajaur agency (bordering Afghanistan) in FATA. [59] The locals claimed that all those killed were Islamic teachers and students.

     

    Recommendations:

     

    In the light of the concerns expressed above, Asian Centre for Human Rights makes the following recommendations for consideration by the CERD Committee.

     

    The Pakistan government should be urged to:

     

    • Submit 15th to 20th periodic reports within one year and that it should provide comprehensive reports including about the concerns to be expressed by the CERD Committee;
    • Provide equal rights to the religious minorities in all spheres of life;
    • Religious freedom of those serving with the organs of the State be ensured and necessary measures be taken to enable them to take oath of office in the name of their own belief or religion;
    • Remove all propaganda of hatred, religious superiority and defamation of religion from the text books approved by the National Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education;
    • Repeal all the blasphemy laws, in particular Section 295-A, Section 295-B, Section 295-C, Section 298-A and Section 298-B of the Pakistan Penal Code and that the State party be asked to provide information on the Apostasy Bill of 2006;
    • Ensure that with regard to the alleged blasphemy cases against children, laws on juvenile justice prevail and children are not charged or tried under the laws applicable to the adults;
    • Take affirmative action programmes and ensure proportional representation of the minorities in government jobs;
    • Abolish the administrative measures which promote hatred including reference to any particular faith in the passport or national identity card and that Ahmadis be allowed to undertake religious pilgrimages to places of their choice;
    • Ensure the right to freedom of expression of the religious minorities and withdraw ban on the Ahmadi publications;
    • Ensure the economic, social and cultural rights of the religious minorities including the right to land and protect their places of worship from appropriation by the private individuals or groups and/or forcible evictions;
    • Launch special programmes to sensitise the law enforcement personnel on the rights of the minorities to ensure that the minorities have access to equal treatment and protection of the organs administering justice;
    • Develop technical cooperation programmes with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights for capacity building of the law enforcement personnel on the rights of the minorities;
    • Take effective measures against the abduction and kidnapping of the minorities, in particular girls and women and their forcible conversion to Islam;
    • Fully implement the judgment of the Supreme Court of Pakistan to ensure registration of all eligible voters, in particular minorities, in the new electoral rolls;
    • Prohibit indiscriminate use of fire-arms and bombs against the civilians while confronting the armed opposition groups;
    • Respond to the suo motu notice issued by the Supreme Court on 1 August 2007 on the rising number of disappearances in Balochistan, establish a judicial commisison of inquiry into disappearances in Pakistan by a sitting judge of the Supreme Court and establish accountability for disappearances;
    • Invite the UN Working Group on Enforced Disappearances to visit Pakistan;
    • Ratify the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance;
    • Provide unrestricted access to the United Nations and humanitarian agencies to the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Balochistan and elsewhere;
    • Repeal the Frontier Crime Regulation of 1901 from the statute books; and
    • Take effective measures to extend constitutional reforms to the FATA region.


    [1] . Pak's Hindu CJ took oath with a Quranic prayer, Times of India, 26 March 2007, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1824483.cms

    [2] . Pak Considers Bill Condemning Muslim Converts to Death, Minorities' Concerns of Pakistan, E-Newsletter of Religious Minorities for peace and harmony in Pakistan, June 2007, Issue No. 15

    [3] . “Hindus in South Asia and the Diaspora: A Survey of Human Rights – 2006”, Hindu American Foundation, 11 July 2007 available at: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/pdf/HHR2006.pdf

    [4] . Press Release of National Commission for Justice and Peace dated 1 June 2007

    [5] . Minorities' Concerns of Pakistan, E-Newsletter of Religious Minorities for peace and harmony in Pakistan, June 2007, Issue No. 15

    [6] . Younis Masih Sentenced To Death For “Blasphemy”, Minorities' Concerns of Pakistan, E-Newsletter of Religious Minorities for peace and harmony in Pakistan, June 2007, Issue No. 15

    [7] . Ahmadi arrested under Ahmadi-specific law, and maliciously subjected to the anti-terrorism law, 8 June 2007, http://www.thepersecution.org/nr/2007/june.html

    [8] . Two elderly Blasphemers sentenced to 10 years, Pakistan Christian Post, http://www.pakistanchristianpost.com/newsdetails.php?archives=1&newsid=916

    [9] . Hate material in children's magazine?: Cases registered against Ahmadi kids over magazine subscription, Daily Times, 2 February 2007

    [10] . Released Christian In Danger, Minorities' Concern of Pakistan, Monthly E-Newsletter of Religious Minorities for peace and harmony in Pakistan, February 2007, Issue No. 13  

    [11] . Minorities Have Less Share In  Civil Services Of Pakistan, Minorities' Concern of Pakistan, Monthly E-Newsletter of Religious Minorities for peace and harmony in Pakistan, February 2007, Issue No. 13  

    [12] . Loss of job for being an Ahmadi, 15 May 2007, http://www.thepersecution.org/nr/2007/june.html

    [13] . Mob and police torture Catholic man accused of blasphemy, Pakistan Christian Post, http://www.pakistanchristianpost.com/newsdetails.php?archives=1&newsid=966 

    [14] . http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71443.htm

    [15] . http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71443.htm

    [16] . Another step backward, http://www.thepersecution.org/nr/2007/february.html

    [17] . http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71443.htm

    [18] . http://www.thepersecution.org/nr/2006/y2006.html#1

    [19] . http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71443.htm

    [20] . Attack on Ahmadiyya Freedom of expression, belief and press, http://www.thepersecution.org/nr/2007/january.html

    [21] . http://www.thepersecution.org/nr/2006/y2006.html#1

    [22] . State of Human Rights in 2006, Human Rights Commission of Pakistan

    [23] . Temple demolished, says Pakistan council, Times of India, 17 June 2006, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1655965.cms

    [24] . No construction on temple site: Pak court, Times of India, 18 June 2006, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1656554.cms

    [25] . Communication from National Commission for Justice and Peace Pakistan, 7 February2007 

    [26] . Ahmadi cemetery fence razed in pre-dawn operation, Daily Times, 23 April 2007

    [27] . Cheena Bibi, a teen age Christian girl gang raped by Muslims on Easter Day in Punjab, Pakistan Christian Post, available at http://www.pakistanchristianpost.com/newsdetails.php?archives=1&newsid=962

    [28] . Runaway Christian couple became easy prey of Muslim gang rapists, Pakistan Christian Post, http://www.pakistanchristianpost.com/newsdetails.php?archives=1&newsid=983

    [29] .  ‘Hindus in Pakistan are insecure', The Times of India, 30 March 2007, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1833721.cms

    [30] . Hindus feel the heat in Pakistan, BBC News, 2 March 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6367773.stm

    [31] . Kidnapped Hindu engineer beheaded, buried by militants in seminary, Daily Times, 8 February 2007

    [32] . Hindus feel the heat in Pakistan, BBC News, 2 March 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6367773.stm

    [33] . UA-008-2006: PAKISTAN: Another Hindu girl forcibly converted to Islam after being abducted, Asian Human Rights Commmission, 9 January 2007, http://www.ahrchk.net/ua/mainfile.php/2007/2158/

    [34] . UA-008-2006: PAKISTAN: Another Hindu girl forcibly converted to Islam after being abducted, Asian Human Rights Commmission, 9 January 2007, http://www.ahrchk.net/ua/mainfile.php/2007/2158/

    [35] . Militants Ask Christians To Convert To Islam, Minorities' Concerns of Pakistan, E-Newsletter of Religious Minorities for peace and harmony in Pakistan, June 2007, Issue No. 15

    [36] . Email communication from Minorities' Concern of Pakistan, 23 June 2007

    [37] . Ahmadis set to boycott general elections again, The Daily Times, 29 June 2007

    [38] . Ahmadis set to boycott general elections again, The Daily Times, 29 June 2007

    [39] . Questionable voters' lists, Dawn, 28 July 2007, http://www.dawn.com/2007/06/28/ed.htm

    [40] . 18 per cent minority voters' name missing from NWFP electoral list, Malaysia Sun 27 July 2007, http://story.malaysiasun.com/index.php/ct/9/cid/303b19022816233b/id/268625/cs/1/

    [41] . Disenfranchise no eligible voters, SC tells ECP, Daily Times, 27 July 2007, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\07\27\story_27-7-2007_pg1_1

    [42] . Breaking News: Eighteen Baloch women and children killed, 28 Punjabi army soldiers killed 37 injured, http://www.balochvoice.com/Law_and_Order/2007/Laworder_in_Balochistan_1st_Quarter_
    2007.html#07-03-30%20Breaking%20News:%20Eighteen%20Baloch%20women%20
    and%20children%20killed, %2028%20Punjabi%20army%20soldiers%20killed%2037%20injured

    [43] . Two women and two children killed in Jet bombing near Kahan, Baloch Voice, 15 June 2006, http://www.balochvoice.com/Marri_files/Two_women_and_two_children_killed_in_Jet_bombing-15-6-06.html

    [44] . CJP takes notice of disappearances in Balochistan, The Daily Times, 2 August 2007, available at: http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\08\02\story_2-8-2007_pg7_23

    [45] . 4,000 Baloch youths detained illegally: BNP-M, Daily Times, 13 December 2006

    [46] . Govt urged to come clean on ‘enforced disappearances', Dawn, 10 December 2006, http://www.dawn.com/2006/12/10/top3.htm

    [47] . UN help sought to save IDPs from starvation: Balochistan instability displaces 84,000, The Dawn, 22 December 2006

    [48] . UN help sought to save IDPs from starvation: Balochistan instability displaces 84,000, The Dawn, 22 December 2006

    [49] . Two women and two children killed in Jet bombing near Kahan, Baloch Voice, 15 June 2006, available at: http://www.balochvoice.com/Marri_files/Two_women_and_two_children_killed_in_Jet_bombing-15-6-06.html

    [50] . Thousands displaced in Waziristan, Balochistan, The Post, 11 October 2006

    [51] . UN help sought to save IDPs from starvation: Balochistan instability displaces 84,000, The Dawn, 22 December 2006

    [52] . http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/July04/16/06.html

    [53] . PHC asks FATA security secy to check admin's powers, The Daily Times, 13 April 2007

    [54] . http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/July04/16/06.html

    [55] . http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engasa330132006

    [56] . http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engasa330132006

    [57] . See Article 247

    [58] . PHC asks FATA security secy to check admin's powers, The Daily Times, 13 April 2007

    [59] . 82 die as missiles rain on Bajaur: Pakistan owns up to strike; locals blame US drones, The Dawn, 31 October 2006

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